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Freedmen's Bureau


(1865-72), during the Reconstruction period after the American Civil War , popular name for the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, established by Congress to provide practical aid to 4,000,000 newly freed black Americans in their transition from slavery to freedom. Headed by Major General Oliver O. Howard , the Freedmen's Bureau might be termed the first federal welfare agency. Despite handicaps of inadequate funds and poorly trained personnel, the bureau built hospitals for, and gave direct medical assistance to, more than 1,000,000 freedmen. More than 21,000,000 rations were distributed to impoverished blacks as well as whites. (see also  South, the, Reconstruction, Howard, Oliver O.)

Its greatest accomplishments were in education: more than 1,000 black schools were built and over $400,000 spent to establish teacher-training institutions. All major black colleges were either founded by, or received aid from, the bureau. Less success was achieved in civil rights, for the bureau's own courts were poorly organized and short-lived, and only the barest forms of due process of law for freedmen could be sustained in the civil courts. Its most notable failure concerned the land itself. Thwarted by President Andrew Johnson's restoration of abandoned lands to pardoned Southerners and by the adamant refusal of Congress to consider any form of land redistribution, the bureau was forced to oversee sharecropping arrangements that inevitably became oppressive. Congress, preoccupied with other national interests and responding to the continued hostility of white Southerners, terminated the bureau in July 1872. (see also  education, history of )


Ableman v. Booth ] Adams, John Quincy ] "America" - By James M Whitfield ] Amistad mutiny ] Anti-Slavery Convention Address - Angelina Grimke's ] American Anti-Slavery Society ] From David Walker's Appeal - Our Wretchedness in Consequence of Slavery ] Birney, James Gillespie ] Black Code ] Bleeding Kansas ] Brown, William Wells ] Brown, John ] Chapman, Maria Weston ] Child, Lydia Maria ] Clay, Cassius Marcellus ] Compromise of 1850 ] Crandall, Prudence ] Emancipation Proclamation ] Forced Labour ] Foster, Abigail Kelley ] freedman ] [ Freedmen's Bureau ] Freetown ] Fugitive Slave Acts ] gag rule ] Grimke, Sarah (Moore) and Angelina (Emily) ] From The Liberator  - By William Lloyd Garrison ] Liberty Party ] Abraham Lincoln ] lynching ] The Martyr - From Uncle Tom’s Cabin ] Middle Passage ] Missouri Compromise ] peonage ] personal-liberty laws ] On the Reception of Abolition Petitions ] Racism ] Reconstruction ] Serfdom ] Sharp, Granville ] Congregations Sites for the Abolitioninsts ] Stevens, Thaddeus ] Thoreau's "A Plea for Captain John Brown" ] Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture ] Truth, Sojourner ] Turner, Nat ] Underground Railroad ] Whittier, John Greenleaf ]

 ] Wiliam LLoyd Garrison ] Frederick Douglass ] The Liberator ] Thomas Clarkson ] Wilberforce, William ] Uncle Tom's Cabin ] Slavery ] 관련 문서들 ]


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