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Religion

종교 탐방

V. Bibliography

 

1. Islam. General works:

Cambridge History of Islam, (1970, vol. 2, pt. 8; reissued 1977, vol. 2B), an excellent survey; MARSHALL G.S. HODGSON, The Venture of Islam, 3 vol. (1974), a major and influencial study of the religion and civilization; R.M. SAVORY (ed.), Introduction to Islamic Civilization (1976), a collection of scholarly articles on Islamic history, religion, literature, language, and other topics; BERNARD LEWIS (ed.), The World of Islam: Faith, People, Culture (U.S. title, Islam and the Arab World, 1976), a collection of articles on various aspects of Islamic culture, and Islam: From the Prophet Muhammad to the Capture of Constantinople, 2 vol. (1974), a history composed of translations of original sources; W. MONTGOMERY WATT, The Majesty That Was Islam: The Islamic World, 661-1100 (1974), a concise introductory history of the rise and decline of the Islamic Empire; HAMILTON A.R. GIBB, Mohammedanism, 2nd ed. (1953, reissued with revisions 1969), a penetrating and concise account of the development of Islam; LOUIS GARDET, Mohammedanism, trans. by WILLIAM BURRIDGE (1961), a systematic presentation of Islam, with religious insight; FAZLUR RAHMAN, Islam, 2nd ed. (1979), a historical and systematic interpretation of Islam, and Islamic Methodology in History (1965), a critical appraisal of the development of sunnah, ijma', and ijtihad; REUBIN LEVY, An Introduction to the Sociology of Islam (1930- ), useful account of the development of Islamic society and institutions. JOHN W. BAGNOLE, Cultures of the Islamic Middle East (1978), an annotated guide to 402 English-language readings for the nonspecialist.

2. Education:

ARTHUR S. TRITTON, Materials on Muslim Education in the Middle Ages (1957), an informative, useful compilation; BAYARD DODGE, Muslim Education in Medieval Times (1962), a useful sketch.

3. Political theory and institutions:

ERWIN I.J. ROSENTHAL, Political Thought in Medieval Islam (1958), a good general survey of the subject.

4. Islamic arts:

In view of the wealth of descriptive treatments, rather than theory, it is difficult to point to a single source. K.A.C. CRESWELL, A Bibliography of the Architecture, Arts and Crafts of Islam to 1st Jan. 1960 (1961), and Supplement, Jan. 1960 to Jan. 1972 (1973), contain all the necessary references. See also his Early Muslim Architecture, 2nd ed. (1969), and AMERICAN UNIVERSITY AT CAIRO, CENTER FOR ARABIC STUDIES, Studies in Islamic Art and Architecture in Honor of Professor K.A.C. Creswell (1965); HAMILTON A.R. GIBB, Arabic Literature: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (1974), a probing survey of 1,500 years of literature; SALIH J. ALTOMA, Modern Arabic Literature (1975), a bibliography of 850 general and scholarly works covering 1800-1970.

5. Muhammad.

Biographical works: W. MONTGOMERY WATT, Muhammad at Mecca (1953) and Muhammad at Medina (1956, reprinted 1977), a full-scale treatment, summarized in Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman (1961, reissued 1974), by the same author; FRANTS BUHL, . . . Das Leben Muhammeds, 3rd ed. (1961), a German translation of a work published in Danish in 1903 that is still considered reliable; TOR ANDRAE, Mohammed: The Man and His Faith, trans. by THEOPHIL MENZEL (1936, reprinted 1971), chiefly concerned with religious aspects; IBN HISHAM, The Life of Muhammad: A Translation of Ishaq's Sirat rasul Allah (1955, reissued 1967), the primary Arabic biography; NABIA ABBOTT, Aishah: The Beloved of Mohammed (1942, reprinted 1973), a scholarly work; JOHN BAGOT GLUBB, The Life and Times of Muhammad (1970), a popular account based on the author's familiarity with Arab life.

6. Primary sources:

The Qur`an, of course, contains basic contemporary materials on Muhammad, but it is difficult to assess them without broader historical knowledge. The vast collections of Traditions (Hadith), or anecdotes about Muhammad's words and deeds, are historically disputable and, besides, seldom tell us anything significant about Muhammad's career. The main sources of historical value are the early biographies (8th-9th century), especially the Sirah of IBN ISHAQ, as adapted by IBN HISHAM, and the Maghazi ("Expeditions") of AL-WAQIDI, together with the supplementary materials recorded by his associate IBN SA'D. The last item contains much material about the Companions (persons in contact with Muhammad) and thus about the Prophet's relation to and work with them. Some contemporary documents are preserved in the early biographical works, the most important being the so-called "Constitution of Medina." The latter is in Guillaume's translation of Ibn Ishaq cited above; other documents are in Watt's Muhammad at Medina.

7. The Qur`an.

The basic work is T. NÖLDEKE, Geschichte des Qorans (1860, 2nd ed. by FRIEDRICH SCHWALLY 1909-38, reprinted 1970). Less comprehensive but more modern are RICHARD BELL, Introduction to the Qur`an, new ed., rev. and enl. by W. MONTGOMERY WATT (1970); and RÉGIS BLACHÈRE, Introduction au Coran, 2nd ed. (1977). The history of Qur`anic interpretation is set forth in IGNÁC GOLDZIHER, Die Richtungen der islamischen Koranauslegung (1920, reprinted 1970). It should be supplemented by JOHANNES M.S. BALJON, Modern Muslim Koran Interpretation, 1880-1960 (1961, reprinted 1968). ARTHUR JEFFERY, The Qur`an as Scripture (1952, reprinted 1980), deals with the Qur`an's view of its own function. KENNETH CRAGG, The Event of the Qur`an (1971), deals with the meaning of the Qur`an in Islamic life. English translations include The Meaning of the Glorious Qur`an: Text and Explanatory Translation, by MUHAMMAD M. PICKTHALL (1938, reissued 1977); The Koran Interpreted by ARTHUR J. ARBERRY (1964), which is well known for its literary qualities; and HELMUT GÄTJE, The Qur`an and Its Exegesis: Selected Texts with Classical and Modern Muslim Interpretations, trans. and ed. by ALFORD T. WELCH (1977).

8. Hadith.

J. ROBSON, "Hadith," in The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new ed., vol. 3, pp. 23-28 (1971), and TH.W. JUYNBOLL, "Hadith," in The Encyclopaedia of Islam, vol. 2, pp. 189-194 (1927), two important summaries with extensive bibliographies; ALFRED GUILLAUME, The Traditions of Islam (1924, reprinted 1980), a general introduction serviceable for a first study; IGNÁC GOLDZIHER, Études sur la tradition islamique, ed. by LÉON BERCHER (1952), a French trans. of the major part of vol. 2 of Muhammedanische Studien, 2 vol. (1888-90, Eng. trans. by C.R. BARBER and S.M. STERN, Muslim Studies, ed. by S.M. STERN, 1967-71), a classic work on the early development of Hadith, reflecting the early history of religious ideas in Islam; MAULANA MUHAMMAD ALI, A Manual of Hadith (1944), a general selection, mainly from al-Bukhari, in Arabic and English; A.J. WENSINCK, A Handbook of Early Muhammadan Tradition (1927, reprinted 1971), an alphabetical arrangement by a great Dutch scholar; MUHAMMAD Z. SIDDIQI, Hadith Literature: Its Origin, Development, Special Features and Criticism (1961), an Asian Muslim's presentation.

9. Theology and philosophy.

FRANZ ROSENTHAL (ed.), The Classical Heritage in Islam, trans. from the German by EMILE MARMORSTEIN and JENNY MARMORSTEIN (1975), and RICHARD WALZER, Greek into Arabic: Essays on Islamic Philosophy (1962, reissued 1970), deal with the Greek and Hellenistic background and its appropriation. PARVIZ MOREWEDGE (ed.), Islamic Philosophical Theology (1979), is a major contribution by nine internationally known authorities written for advanced students; W. MONTGOMERY WATT, The Formative Period of Islamic Thought (1973), is a study of the evolution of theological thought in the 300 years after Muhammad's death, and his Free Will and Predestination in Early Islam (1948, reissued 1972), is an excellent treatment of the formative period of Islamic theology; ASAF A.A. FYZEE (ed. and trans.), . . . a Shi'ite Creed (1942), is an annotated translation of a standard Shi'ite creed by Ibn Babawayh; LOUIS GARDET and M.-M. ANAWATI, Introduction à la théologie musulmane, 2nd ed. (1970), is a comprehensive handbook on Sunni theology; and A.J. WENSINCK, The Muslim Creed (1932, reprinted 1965), discusses the background and development of Sunni doctrines. The theology of the Shi'ah is given a prominent place in HENRY CORBIN, Histoire de la philosophie islamique (1964- ); and its early development is discussed by WILFERD MADELUNG in both Der Imam al-Qasim ibn Ibrahim und die Glaubenslehre der Zaiditen (1965), and "Imamism and Mu'tazilite Theology," in Le Shî'isme imâmite, pp. 13-30 (1970). M.M. SHARIF (ed.), A History of Muslim Philosophy, 2 vol. (1963-66), is a comprehensive collective work on the history of Islamic philosophy and related subjects; it is especially useful for the later medieval and modern periods. MAJID FAKHRY, A History of Islamic Philosophy (1970), is a general history. FAZLUR RAHMAN discusses the development of the later synthesis between mysticism and philosophy in "Dream, Imagination and 'Alam al-Mithal," Islamic Studies, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 167-180 (June 1964) in the introduction to Selected Letters of Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi (1968), and in "The Eternity of the World and the Heavenly Bodies in Post-Avicennan Philosophy," in GEORGE F. HOURANI (ed.), Essays on Islamic Philosophy and Science (1975), a collection representing recent trends in interpreting Islamic philosophy.

10. Islamic mysticism.

Introductory works: ARTHUR H. PALMER (comp.), Oriental Mysticism: A Treatise on Sufiistic and Unitarian Theosophy of the Persians, 2nd ed. by ARTHUR J. ARBERRY (1938, reprinted 1974), an exposition of later mystical ideas; ANNEMARIE SCHIMMEL, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (1975), a multifaceted, introductory study of Sufism; REYNOLD A. NICHOLSON, The Mystics of Islam (1914, reprinted 1975), a very readable introduction to classical Sufism and Sufi poetry; ARTHUR J. ARBERRY, Sufism: An Account of the Mystics of Islam (1950), a historical survey of classical Sufism; G.-C. ANAWATI and LOUIS GARDET, Mystique musulmane, 3rd ed. (1976), an excellent study of the major trends and leading personalities in classical Sufism; ROBERT C. ZAEHNER, Hindu and Muslim Mysticism (1960, reissued 1969), a thought-provoking study of the possible relations between Indian and early Muslim mysticism.

11. History:

MARGARET SMITH, Rabi'a the Mystic & Her Fellow-Saints in Islam: Being the Life and Teachings of Rabi'a al-'Adawiyya al-Qaysiyya of Basra, Together with Some Account of the Place of the Women Saints in Islam (1928, reprinted 1977), the first study of the herald of mystical love in Islam; JOSEPH VAN ESS, Die Gedankenwelt des Harit al-Muhasibi anhand von übersetzungen aus seinen Schriften dargestellt und erläutert (1961), an excellent introduction to the theology and psychology of early mystical thought in Islam; LOUIS MASSIGNON, La Passion de Husayn ibn Mansûr Hallâj: martyr mystique de l'Islam, new ed. 4 vol. (1975), an indispensable source book for the history of Sufism in the classical period; ANNEMARIE SCHIMMEL, Al-Halladsch, Märtyrer der Gottesliebe (1968), a German translation of parts of Hallaj's poetry and prose, and a study of his influence on the literatures of the different Islamic peoples; SERGE DE LAUGIER DE BEAURECUEIL, Khwadja 'Abdullah Ansari (396-481 H./1006-1089): Mystique Hanbalite (1965), a biography of the author of the beautiful Persian munajat (prayers) and other mystical books; A.J. WENSINCK, La Pensée de Ghazzali (1940), a short and reliable introduction to Ghazali's thought; JOHN A. SUBHAN, Sufism: Its Saints and Shrines (1938, reissued 1978), a useful survey of the later development of Islamic mysticism.

12. Sufi literature:

HELMUT RITTER, Das Meer der Seele (1955, reissued 1978), an exhaustive work on Farid ud-Din 'Attar's thought as reflected in his mystical poetry; JALÁLU`DDIN RÚMÍ, The Mathnawí, ed. with critical notes, translation, and commentary by REYNOLD A. NICHOLSON, 8 vol. (1925-40), the encyclopaedia of mystical thought in the 13th century in masterly translation; H.T. SORLEY, Shah Abdul Latif of Bhit (1940; reprinted 1966), a study of the greatest mystical poet of Sind.

13. Sufi thought and practice:

BENEDIKT REINERT, Die Lehre vom Tawakkul in der klassischen Sufik (1968), the first fundamental study of a single concept central to early Islamic mysticism, built upon a critical analysis of all available sources; ARTHUR J. ARBERRY, The Doctrine of the Sufis (1935, reprinted 1977), a useful translation of Kalabadhi's Kitab at-ta'arruf, one of the early treatises on Sufi thought; The Kashf al-Mahjub: The Oldest Persian Treatise on Sufism by ALI BIN UTHMAN al-HUJWIRI, trans. by REYNOLD A. NICHOLSON (1911, reprinted 1976), a masterly translation of the voluminous 11th-century account of Sufi thought; G.-H. BOUSQUET (ed.), Ih`yâ 'ouloûm ed-dîn; ou Vivification des sciences de la foi (1955), an analytical index of the most widely read work on moderate mystical thought, prepared with the assistance of numerous scholars; CONSTANCE E. PADWICK, Muslim Devotions (1961), the only account of the popular mystically tinged piety of the Muslims as reflected in their prayer books; LALEH BAKHTIAR, Sufi: Expressions of the Mystic Quest (1976), discusses and shows through illustrations the Sufi experience and its expression in the arts.

14. Theosophical Sufism:

A.E. AFFIFI, The Mystical Philosophy of Muhyid Dín-Ibnul 'Arabí (1939, reissued 1974), the first attempt, in a Western language, to systematize the pantheistic system of the 13th-century theosophist; HENRY CORBIN, Creative Imagination in the Sufism of Ibn 'Arabi, trans. by RALPH MANHEIM (1970); REYNOLD A. NICHOLSON, Studies in Islamic Mysticism (1921, reissued 1978), a study of Abu Sa'id and a discussion of Jili's Perfect Man and of Ibn al-Farid, with a superb translation of most of his odes.

15. Sufi orders:

OCTAVE DEPONT and XAVIER CAPPOLANI, Les Confréries religieuses musulmanes (1897), a comprehensive account of Sufi brotherhoods; HANS J. KISSLING, "Die Wunder der Derwische," ZDMG (Zeitschrift der deutschen morgenländischen Gesellschaft), vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 348-361 (August 1957), a fully documented account of the kinds of miracles performed by dervishes; KHALIQ A. NIZAMI, The Life and Times of Shaikh Faridud-din Ganj-i-Shakar (1955, reprinted 1973), a good survey of the life of one of the leading Chishti saints in India; RENÉ BRUNEL, Le Monachisme errant dans l'Islam: Sidi Heddi et les Heddawa (1955), a penetrating study of a little known fraternity of dervishes in North Africa; JAMIL M. ABUN-NASR, The Tijaniyya: A Sufi Order in the Modern World (1965), a study of the development of political activities of this 19th-century order in the northern and western parts of Africa; J. SPENCER TRIMINGHAM, The Sufi Orders in Islam (1971), the first attempt to give a survey of all orders in Islam, and, as such, quite useful.

16. Islamic law.

A general survey of the Islamic legal system, covering its historical development, jurisprudential theory, and the most important spheres of the substantive law, is contained in JOSEPH SCHACHT, An Introduction to Islamic Law (1964); JAMES N.D. ANDERSON, Islamic Law in the Modern World (1959, reprinted 1975); and NOEL J. COULSON, History of Islamic Law (1964, reprinted 1971). The reader is referred to the bibliographies of these books, particularly for the numerous articles written by James N.D. Anderson on developments in the law. JOSEPH SCHACHT, Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence (1950, reissued with corrections and additions, 1967), is a fundamental work of modern research on the early development of legal theory written by the pioneer scholar of this subject. A sound analysis of traditional legal theory is presented in ABDUR RAHIM, Muhammadan Jurisprudence (1911, reprinted 1981); and in The Philosophy of Jurisprudence in Islam, (1961), an Eng. trans. by FARMAT J. ZIADEH of the Arabic text of an outstanding Muslim jurist, Subhi Mahmassani. MAJID KHADDURI and HERBERT J. LIEBESNY (eds.), Law in the Middle East (1955), includes chapters by Muslim scholars and Western Orientalists on the various spheres of substantive Islamic law, traditional and modern. ASAF A.A. FYZEE, Outlines of Muhammadan Law, 4th ed. (1974), is a standard text dealing with Islamic law as it is applied in India and Pakistan. NORMAN ANDERSON, Law Reform in the Muslim World (1976), is a comparative study of the history, philosophy, and achievements of legal reform. The Encyclopaedia of Islam (1913-42; new ed., 1960- ), contains numerous articles on individual legal topics.

17. Islamic myth and legend.

TOR ANDRAE, Die Person Muhammeds in Lehre und Glauben seiner Gemeinde (1917), on the development of Muhammad-mysticism; ISRAEL FRIEDLÄNDER, Die Chadhirlegende und der Alexander-Roman (1913), on the relation between the Alexander romance and the figure of Khidr; MAX J.H. HORTEN, Die religiöse Gedankenwelt der gebildeten Muslime in heutigen Islam (1916), an account of popular Islam, and Die religiöse Gedankenwelt des Volkes im heutigen Islam, 2 pt. (1917-18), an account of the ideas of educated people in Islam; A.J. WENSINCK, "The Ocean in the Literature of the Western Semites," Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, vol. 19, no. 2 (1918), and "The Ideas of the Western Semites Concerning the Navel of the Earth," ibid., vol. 17, no. 1 (1916); SEYYED H. NASR, Three Muslim Sages (1964, reissued 1976), an account of the theories of Suhrawardi al-Maqtul and Ibn 'Arabi; JOSEPH HOROWITZ, "The Growth of the Mohammed Legend," Moslem World, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 49-58 (January 1920), stresses the haggadic influences; WALTHER EICKMANN, Angelologie und Dämonologie des Korans . . . (1908), a study of the Qur`anic concepts of angels and demons; ERNST A. ZBINDEN, Die Djinn des Islam und der altorientalische Geisterglaube (1953), a study of the different types of spirits in Islamic folklore and tradition; RUDOLF KRISS and HUBERT KRISS-HEINRICH, Volksglaube im Bereich des Islam, 2 vol. (1960-62), useful studies in Islamic folklore, with extensive bibliographies; TAUFIC CANAAN, Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine (1927), on Palestinian folklore; articles in the Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam (1953), an authoritative collection of information, each article furnished with an extensive bibliography.

   


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