Jesusi.com Homepage

 

 

 게시판  검색  자료실  사이트맵  예수와나?

뒤로 ]  ] 위로 ] 다음 ]

 

Religion


종교 탐방

Shaker

셰이커교

Shaker, member of UNITED SOCIETY OF BELIEVERS IN CHRIST'S SECOND APPEARING, celibate millenarian sect that established communal settlements in the United States in the 18th century. Dedicated to productive labour as well as to a life of perfection, Shaker communities flourished economically and contributed a distinctive style of architecture, furniture, and handicraft to American culture before the sect's decline in the late 19th and 20th centuries. 셰이커교 (Shaker), 정식 명칭은 그리스도 재림신자연합회(United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing)이며, 천년왕국설을 믿는 독신주의자들의 단체이다. 그들은 미국에 공동체를 세웠고, 완전한 생활과 생산적인 노동에 헌신했으며, 경제적으로 번창했고, 미국의 건축·가구·수공품 등에서 독특한 양식을 창출하는 데 기여했다.
The Shakers derived originally from a small branch of radical English Quakers who had adopted the French Camisards' ritual practices of shaking, shouting, dancing, whirling, and singing in tongues. The Shaker doctrine, as it came to be known in the United States, was formulated by Ann Lee, an illiterate textile worker of Manchester, who was converted to the "Shaking Quakers" in 1758. After experiencing persecution and imprisonment for participation in noisy worship services, "Mother Ann" had a series of revelations, after which she regarded herself--and was so regarded by her followers--as the female aspect of God's dual nature and the second Incarnation of Christ. She established celibacy as a cardinal principle of the sect. 셰이커교는 처음에 과격한 영국 퀘이커교도들의 작은 분파에서 시작되었다. 영국의 퀘이커교도들은 몸을 흔들고 소리치며 춤추고 빙빙돌며 여러 방언으로 노래하는 프랑스 카미자르파 의식을 채택했던 사람들이다. 미국에 알려진 셰이커교의 교리를 공식적으로 작성한 사람은 맨체스터에 사는 한 문맹 직조공으로 일찍이 1758년 '셰이킹 퀘이커교'(Shaking Quakers)로 개종한 앤 리라는 사람이었다. 소란스러운 예배에 참석했다는 이유로 핍박받고 감옥에도 들어갔던 ' 마더 앤'(Mother Ann)은 일련의 계시를 받은 뒤, 자신을 하느님의 양성 가운데 하나인 여성이자 2번째로 성육신한 그리스도로 여겼고, 그녀를 추종하는 자들도 그렇게 여겼다. 그녀는 독신주의를 자기 종파의 기본신조로 삼았다.
In 1774 Ann Lee came to America with eight disciples, having been charged by a new revelation to establish the millennial church in the New World. Settling in 1776 at Niskeyuna (now Watervliet), N.Y., the small group of believers benefited from an independent revival movement that was sweeping the district and, within five years, was enlarged by several thousand converts. 1774년 앤 리는 미국에 천년왕국교회를 세우라는 새로운 계시를 받고 8명의 제자들을 데리고 미국으로 갔다. 1776년 뉴욕 니스큐나(지금의 워터블릿)에 정착한 이 소수의 신자들은 마침 그 지역을 휩쓸고 있던 독립 부흥운동의 덕분으로 5년 만에 수천 명의 개종자를 얻었다.
After Mother Ann's death (1784), the Shaker church came under the leadership of Elder Joseph Meacham and Eldress Lucy Wright, who together worked out the communal pattern that was to be the distinctive Shaker social organization. The first Shaker community, established at New Lebanon, N.Y., in 1787, remained the head of influence as the movement spread through New England and westward into Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana. By 1826, 18 Shaker villages had been set up in eight states.  1784년에 마더 앤이 죽은 뒤 장로 조지프 미첨과 여장로 루시 라이트가 셰이커교를 이끌어나갔다. 이 두 사람은 공동체의 양식을 마련했는데, 이 양식은 후에 셰이커교 특유의 사회조직이 되었다. 최초의 셰이커교 공동체는 1787년 뉴욕 주 뉴레버넌에 세워졌다. 이 공동체는 나중에 이 운동이 뉴잉글랜드를 거쳐 서부를 향해 오하이오, 인디애나 전역으로 확산되었을 때 지도적인 영향력을 행사했다. 1826년까지 18개의 셰이커교 공동체 부락이 8개 주에 세워졌다.
Although often persecuted for pacifism or for bizarre beliefs falsely attributed to them, the Shakers won admiration for their model farms and orderly, prosperous communities. Their industry and ingenuity produced numerous (usually unpatented) inventions, of which the screw propeller, Babbitt metal, a rotary harrow, an automatic spring, a turbine waterwheel, a threshing machine, the circular saw, and the common clothespin are a few. They were the first to package and market seeds and were once the largest producers of medicinal herbs in the United States. In exchanges with outsiders they were noted for their fair dealing. Shaker dances and songs are a genuine folk art, and the simple beauty, functionalism, and honest craftsmanship of their meetinghouses, barns, and artifacts have had a lasting influence on American design. 셰이커교도들은 반전론자들이고 기괴한 신앙을 가진 자들이라는 오해를 받아 핍박을 받기도 했으나, 모범농장과 잘 정돈되고 번창하는 공동체를 가꾸어 나감으로써 명성을 얻었다. 그들은 부지런히 일하고 창의성을 발휘해 스크루 추진기, 배빗 합금(Babbitt metal), 회전식 써레, 자동 용수철(혹은 태엽), 터빈 수차, 탈곡기, 둥근 톱, 빨래집게 등 수많은 발명품(대개 발명특허는 받지 못했음)을 만들었다. 그들은 최초로 씨앗을 포장하여 거래했으며, 한때는 의약용 약초들을 가장 많이 생산했다. 그들은 외부 사람들과 공정하게 거래한다고 소문이 나기도 했다. 셰이커교도들의 춤과 노래는 순수한 민속예술의 하나이며, 그들의 집회소·헛간·인공구조물 등에 나타난 간결미, 기능주의, 정직한 장인정신 등은 오랫동안 미국 디자인계에 영향을 끼쳤다. 
The Shaker impulse reached its height during the 1840s, when about 6,000 members were enrolled in the church. It later declined, however, and by 1874 the society was advertising for members, emphasizing physical comfort as well as spiritual values. By 1905 there were only 1,000 members, and by the late 20th century only a few survivors remained.

셰이커교의 교세는 1840년대에 최고조에 달했으며 교회에 가입한 회원수는 거의 6,000명에 이르렀다. 그러나 나중에는 교세가 기울기 시작하여, 1874년에 이르러서는 회원을 모집하는 광고를 내기도 했는데, 그 내용은 영적인 가치뿐만 아니라 물질적인 안락도 강조하는 것이었다. 1905년에는 회원수가 1,000명에 불과했고, 1970년대말에는 12명의 여자만 남았다.

Ann Lee

안 리

Lee, Ann, byname MOTHER ANN (b. Feb. 29, 1736, Manchester, Eng.--d. Sept. 8, 1784, Watervliet, N.Y., U.S.), religious leader who brought the Shaker sect from England to the American Colonies.

The daughter of a blacksmith, she was a factory worker who in 1758 joined the Shaking Quakers, a radical offshoot of the Quakers. She married in 1762, an unhappy union that probably influenced her later doctrinal insistence on celibacy.

In 1770, during a period of religious persecution by the English authorities, she was imprisoned and while in jail became convinced of the truth of certain religious ideas perceived in a vision. She came to believe that sexual lust impeded Christ's work and that only through celibacy could men and women further his kingdom on Earth. Four years later, commanded as the result of another vision, Lee persuaded her husband, brother, and six other followers to emigrate to America. There, her followers founded a settlement in the woods of Niskeyuna (now Watervliet), near Albany (in present-day New York state). Beginning with an influx of converts from nearby settlements, the Shaker movement grew and began to spread throughout New England to embrace thousands. Mother Ann, as she came to be known, was believed to have ushered in the millennium, for the Shakers asserted that as Christ had embodied the masculine half of God's dual nature, so she embodied the female half.

In 1780 Mother Ann was imprisoned for treason because of her pacifist doctrines and her refusal to sign an oath of allegiance. She was soon released and in 1781-83 toured New England. According to witnesses, she performed a number of miracles, including healing the sick by touch. See also Shaker .

 

   

Inner Light ] Society of Friends ] Richmond Declaration of Faith ] 죠지 폭스 ] 엘리어스 힉스 ] 윌리엄 펜 ] 존 울먼 ] 제임스 네일러 ] 로버트 버클리 ] 친우회 서울 ] 함석헌 ] 친우회 동경 ] 친우회 모임 ] 퀘이커 링크 ] Quaker History Archive ] [ 셰이커교 ] Seeker ] Doukhobors ] Leo Tolstoy ] The Way to Peace ]


 ] 루터교회 ] 개혁, 장로교회 ] 성공회 ] 침례교회 ] 회중교회 ] 종교적 친우회 ] 감리교회 ] 그리스도의 제자회 ] 일신, 만인교회 ] 재세례주의 ]


 
 
 

 게시판  검색  자료실  사이트맵  예수와나?

뒤로 ]  ] 위로 ] 다음 ]

 
 

Jesusi.com Homepage



This page was last modified 2001/09/27