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Religion

종교 탐방

Systems of Religious and Spiritual Belief

 

14 Bibliography

 

14.1 Nature worship:

14.2 Animism:

14.3 Totemism:

14.4 Ancestor worship:

14.5 Polytheism:

14.6 Pantheism and panentheism:

14.7 Religious dualism:

14.8 Monotheism:

14.9 Theism:

14.10 Deism:

14.11 Agnosticism:

14.12 Atheism:

 

14.1 Nature worship:

Apart from some older works about particular forms of nature worship, the most important discussions of this form of religion and the related nature mythology appear in journals. JAMES G. FRAZER, The Worship of Nature (1926), is a classic work mainly concerned with the worship of the heavens, the sun, and the earth; and The Golden Bough, 3rd ed. rev., 12 vol. (1907-15; abridged ed., 1922 and 1959), contains an important discussion of nature gods, especially vegetation gods, and their cults. Important references to the worship of nature may be found under various headings in The Mythology of All Races, ed. by LOUIS H. GRAY, 13 vol. (1916-32); and The Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, ed. by JAMES HASTINGS, 13 vol. (1908-26, reprinted 1955).

 

14.2 Animism:

The original and classic source is E.B. TYLOR, Primitive Culture, 2 vol. (1871 and later editions, reprinted 1958). For the "pre-animism" thesis, see R.R. MARETT, The Threshold of Religion, 4th ed. (1929). An extended analysis and review of theories may be found in ADOLF E. JENSEN, Mythos und Kult bei Naturvölkern, 2nd ed. (1960; Eng. trans., Myth and Cult Among Primitive Peoples, 1963); or for a short review, see E.E. EVANS-PRITCHARD, Theories of Primitive Religion (1965). Still to be recommended for an overview is ROBERT H. LOWIE, Primitive Religion, new ed. (1970). An ample source for the animism of China is the 5th volume of J.J.M. DE GROOT'S monumental study, The Religious System of China (1907, reprinted 1969); and for Burma the best introduction is M.E. SPIRO, Burmese Supernaturalism (1967). Ethnographic studies of animistic peoples abound; for an annotated bibliography, see WILLIAM A. LESSA and EVON Z. VOGT, Reader in Comparative Religion, 2nd ed., pp. 640-645 (1965). A provocative consideration of the relation of animism to modern world views is presented in JACQUES MONOD, Le Hasard et la nécessité (1970; Eng. trans., Chance and Necessity, 1971).

 

14.3 Totemism:

FRANZ BOAS, "The Origin of Totemism," Am. Anthrop., 18:319-326 (1916), contains a variety of ideas and objects defined as totemism, and thus maintains little unity; A.P. ELKIN, "Studies in Australian Totemism: The Nature of Australian Totemism," Oceania, 4:113-131 (1933-34); E.E. EVANS-PRITCHARD, "Nuer Totemism," Annali Lateran., 13:225-248 (1949), describes the manifestations of totemism combined with the conception of the spirit in the "Nilot" tribe; J.V. FERREIRA, Totemism in India (1965), a critical evaluation of hitherto existing works on totemism in general and that of India in particular; R. FIRTH, "Totemism in Polynesia," Oceania, 1:291-321, 377-398 vol. 1 (1930-31), a useful survey article; J.L. FISCHER, "Totemism on Truk and Ponape," Am. Anthrop., 59:250-265 (1957), describes and interprets the highly contrasting forms of totemism found in Micronesia, using not only the unusual sociological-ideological organization but also containing psychological aspects. G. FOSTER, "Nagualism in Mexico and Guatemala," Acta Am., 2:85-103 (1944), deals with important borderline cases of totemism with particular regard to the problem of personal totemism; J.G. FRAZER, Totemism and Exogamy, 4 vol. (1910) and Totemica: A Supplement to Totemism and Exogamy (1937), comprehensive and informative reference works although the hypotheses are now out of date; A.A. GOLDENWEISER, "Totemism: An Analytic Study," J. Am. Folklore, 23:179-293 (1910); "Totemism," Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, vol. 14 (1934); J. HAEKEL, "Der heutige Stand des Totemismusproblems," Mitt. Anthrop. Ges. Wien, 82:33-49 (1952), attempts to give a critical examination with concrete examples of the complex question in its various forms; CLAUDE LÉVI-STRAUSS, Le Totémisme aujourd'hui (1962; Eng. trans., Totemism, 1963), contains a detailed critical evaluation of existing hypotheses of Anglo-American and French authors; R. PIDDINGTON, An Introduction to Social Anthropology 1:200-206 (1950), offers a short but sufficient characterization of the totemic phenomena, the difficulty in defining it, its great variability, and some concrete examples.

 

14.4 Ancestor worship:

J.T. ADDISON, Chinese Ancestor Worship (1925), descriptive information on traditional practices in China; E. BENDANN, Death Customs (1930), reprinted 1969), descriptive material useful in distinguishing between death cults and ancestor worship; R.F. FORTUNE, Manus Religion (1935, reprinted 1965), a detailed account, including information on the role of ancestor worship as a sanction for ethical behaviour; J.G. FRAZER, The Belief in Immortality and Worship of the Dead, 3 vol. (1913-24, reprinted 1968), a classic work presenting extensive information on its subject among societies of the world; J.R. GOODY, Death, Property and the Ancestors (1962), a detailed account of mortuary customs of the Lodagaa of West Africa; B. MALINOWSKI, "Baloma, the Spirits of the Dead in the Trobriand Islands," in Magic, Science and Religion and Other Essays (1948).

 

14.5 Polytheism:

S.G.F. BRANDON (ed.), A Dictionary of Comparative Religion (1970), contains articles on the various gods and also on theories, and these have bibliographical sections. A useful compendium is the Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology (1959). One example of the numerous recent anthropological literature is G.E. SWANSON, The Birth of the Gods: The Origin of Primitive Beliefs (1960).

 

14.6 Pantheism and panentheism:

CHARLES HARTSHORNE and W.L. REESE, Philosophers Speak of God (1953), offers an extensive historical exploration of pantheism, panentheism, and Classical Theism. The fundamental basis of panentheism is discussed not only in the epilogue of the above volume, but in many other works by CHARLES HARTSHORNE, including The Divine Relativity (1948) and The Logic of Perfection (1962). For the relation of mysticism to pantheism, see W.T. STACE, Mysticism and Philosophy (1960). For information concerning any of the philosophers mentioned, reference may be made to their individual entries in The Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 8 vol., ed. by PAUL EDWARDS (1967); the Enciclopedia filosofica, 6 vol., 2nd ed., ed. by G.C. SANSONI (1967); or the Diccionario de filosofía, 2 vol., ed. by JOSE FERRATER MORA (1965).

 

14.7 Religious dualism:

UGO BIANCHI, Il dualismo religioso: saggio storico ed etnologico (1958), discusses the "dualistic area" extending from ancient Greece to Iran, east European folklore, north and Central Asia, and North America; see also his "Le dualisme en histoire des religions," Revue de l'histoire des religions, 159:1-46 (1961); and Le origini dello gnosticismo (1967), a collection of papers (in French, German, English, and Italian) presented at the Colloquium of Messina, April 1966, many of which are devoted to dualism in various religions. MIRCEA ELIADE, "Prolegomenon to Religious Dualism: Dyads and Polarities," The Quest: History and Meaning in Religion, ch. 8 (1969), is concerned not only with dualism proper but also with the functions of "duality"; his De Zalmoxis à Gengis-Khan, ch. 2-3 (1970), is a study of dualism in folklore and ethnology. SIMONE PETREMENT, Le Dualisme dans l'histoire de la philosophie et des religions (1946), and Le Dualisme chez Platon, les Gnostiques et les Manichéens (1947), are two important general surveys but do not sufficiently distinguish the different meanings of dualism in the philosophical and the religious-historical terminologies. For an analytic exposition of the Gnostic ideology, with modern analogies, see HANS JONAS, The Gnostic Religion, 2nd ed. (1963); for a discussion of the varieties of Iranian dualism, R.C. ZAEHNER, Zurvan: A Zoroastrian Dilemma (1955). JACQUES DUCHESNE-GUILLEMIN, The Western Response to Zoroaster (1958), deals with the history of the problem of Iranian dualism. Other works include: GEO WIDENGREN, "Der iranische Hintergrund der Gnosis," in Zeitschrift fur Religions- und Geistesgeschichte, 4:97-114 (1952), on dualism in the Indian Upanisads; F.K. NUMAZAWA, Die Weltanfange in der japanischen Mythologie . . . (1946), a comparative, ethnological appreciation of the Yin-Yang opposition; MARCEL GRIAULE and GERMAINE DIETERLEN, Le Renard Pâle, vol. 1, fasc. 1 (1965), an account of dualism in the ontology and the mythology of the Dogon of West Sudan; HELMER RINGGREN, "Dualism," The Faith of Qumran, ch. 2 (1963), a study of Qumranic dualism; and R.M. GRANT, Gnosticism and Early Christianity, rev. ed. (1966).

 

14.8 Monotheism:

General works include: JOSIAH ROYCE, "Monotheism," in the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, vol. 8 (1928); "Monotheismus und Polytheismus," in Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, vol. 4 (1913); T.P. VAN BAAREN, Doolhof der goden (1960); G. VAN DER LEEUW, Phänomenologie der Religion (1933; Eng. trans., Religion in Essence and Manifestation, 2 vol., 1963); and R. OTTO, Das Heilige (1917; Eng. trans., The Idea of the Holy, 2nd ed., 1950). For primitive religions, see T.P. VAN BAAREN, Menschen wie wir (1964); and P. RADIN, Monotheism Among Primitive Peoples (1954); on the high gods, see H. ZWICKER, Das Höchste Wesen (1970); and E.O. JAMES, The Concept of Deity (1950), the only general systematic study of recent date treating the problems of monotheism. H.R. NIEBUHR, Radical Monotheism and Western Culture (1960), is a modern, incisive Protestant theological presentation of absolute monotheism.

 

14.9 Theism:

The classic recent statement of God's transcendence is A.M. FARRER, Finite and Infinite, 2nd ed. (1959), a difficult but essential book; C.A. CAMPBELL, On Selfhood and Godhood (1957), is an exceptionally lucid presentation that allows for the distinctness of finite beings; see also further statements in WILLIAM TEMPLE, Nature, Man and God (1934); H.H. FARMER, God and Men (1947); and H.D. LEWIS, Philosophy of Religion (1965). A. SETH PRINGLE-PATTISON presents the more traditional Idealist view in The Idea of God in the Light of Recent Philosophy (1920). An Idealism stressing the immediate awareness of other minds and of God is found in W.E. HOCKING, The Meaning of God in Human Experience (1912); a presentation similarly starting from Empiricism and science that culminates in a "Cosmic Teleology" is that of F.R. TENNANT, Philosophical Theology, 2 vol. (1928-30). E.S. BRIGHTMAN, The Problem of God (1930), treats God as a limited being (finitism).

 

14.10 Deism:

JOHN LELAND, A View of the Principal Deistical Writers . . . , 3rd ed., 3 vol. (1754; also 1837 ed.), the first historical account; FRITZ MAUTHNER, Der Atheismus und seine Geschichte im Abendlande, 4 vol. (1921-23), a complete history; ERNST CASSIRER, Die Philosophie der Aufklärung (1932; Eng. trans., The Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 1951), a description of Deism and its philosophical background; HAROLD G. NICOLSON, The Age of Reason (1960), on the nature of 18th-century Rationalism and its connection with Deism; JAMES COLLINS, God in Modern Philosophy (1959), a full history of Deism, here called "theism," from Nicolas of Cusa to contemporary theological theories; JOHN ORR, English Deism: Its Roots and Its Fruits (1934); GOTTHARD V. LECHLER, Geschichte des englischen Deismus (1841), the first full history after the end of Deism; HERBERT OF CHERBURY, De Veritate (1624; Eng. trans. by MEYRICK H. CARRE, On Truth, 1937), the first English translation of the reputedly "first" classic expression of Deism; MARIO M. ROSSI, La vita, le opere, i tempi di Edoardo Herbert di Chirbury, 3 vol. (1947), and Alle fonti del deismo e del materialismo moderno (1942), two works that describe Herbert's life and Deistic thought against the background of the history of Deism and the attitude of the church. DAVID HUME, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, 2nd ed. with suppl. (1947), the beginning of the Deist's self-criticism; THOMAS PAINE, The Age of Reason, 3 pt. (1794-1811), the work most influential on the Deism of common people; JOHN S. SPINK, French Free-Thought from Gassendi to Voltaire (1960), on French Deism; HENRY E. ALLISON, Lessing and the Enlightenment (1966); IMMANUEL KANT, Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft (1793; Eng. trans., Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone, 1947), the classic work of the last stage of German Deism; G.W.F. HEGEL, Early Theological Writings, trans. by THOMAS M. KNOX and RICHARD KRONER (1948), early writings to show Hegel's indebtedness to Deistic polemics.

 

14.11 Agnosticism:

The fundamental primary sources are T.H. HUXLEY, "Agnosticism" and "Agnosticism and Christianity" in his Collected Essays, vol. 5 (1894). Other basic sources are W.K. CLIFFORD, The Ethics of Belief, and Other Essays (1876, reprinted 1947); and LESLIE STEPHEN, An Agnostic's Apology, and Other Essays (1893), which first appeared as an essay in 1876. An important classical antecedent is DAVID HUME, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (1748), of which the best modern edition is that of C.W. HENDEL (1955). For a study of this, which was Hume's first Enquiry, see ANTONY FLEW, Hume's Philosophy of Belief (1961), which devotes special attention to its implications for religion. Religious agnosticism is treated in HENRY MANSEL, The Limits of Religious Thought Examined in Eight Lectures (1858). Notable secondary sources include LESLIE STEPHEN, History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century, 2 vol. (1876), the best analytical study done at the time of Huxley and one that still deserves this high rating; R.F. FLINT, Agnosticism (1903); and R.A. ARMSTRONG, Agnosticism and Theism in the Nineteenth Century (1905); for a recent sympathetic biography, see CYRIL BIBBY, T.H. Huxley: Scientist, Humanist, and Educator (1959). Classic rejections of agnosticism include BLAISE PASCAL, Pensées (1960), posthumous fragments given their definitive arrangement by L. LAFUMA; and WILLIAM JAMES. "The Will to Believe," in The Will to Believe, and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy (1897).

 

14.12 Atheism:

The article "Atheism" in The Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, vol. 1, pp. 174-189 (1967, reissued 1972), and the article "Agnoticism" in the Dictionary of the History of Ideas, vol. 1, pp. 17-27 (1968), give sophisticated conceptual elucidations of the concept of atheism. See also Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, vol. 2, pp. 173-190 (1922); Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, vol. 1, cols. 866-870 (1950); Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 3rd ed., vol. 1, cols. 670-678 (1957); GEORGE KLAUS and MANFRED BUHR (eds.), Philosophisches Wörterbuch, 6th rev. and enl. ed., vol. 1, pp. 125-129 (1969); Enciclopedia filosofica, 2nd ed., vol. 1, col. 557-562 (1968); and KAI NIELSEN, Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion (1982). A classic extended history of atheism is FRITZ MAUTHNER, Der Atheismus und seine Geschichte im Abendland, 4 vol. (1920-23, reissued 1963). See also JACOB PRESSER, Das Buch "De tribus impostoribus" (1926); JOHN MACKINNON ROBERTSON, A Short History of Freethought, Ancient and Modern (1957, reissued 1972); HENRI BUSSON, Le Rationalisme dans la littérature française de la Renaissance (1533-1601), new ed., rev. and augmented (1971); and CORNELIO FABRO, God in Exile: Modern Atheism (1968; orginally published in Italian, 1961). Modern atheism is treated in CHARLES BRADLAUGH, Champion of Liberty: Charles Bradlaugh (1933); BARON D'HOLBACH, The System of Nature (1756-96, reissued 1970; originally published in French, 1770), and Common Sense (1795, reissued 1972; originally published in French, 1772); ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER, Complete Essays of Schopenhauer, trans. by T. BAILEY SAUNDERS (1896); LUDWIG FEUERBACH, The Essence of Christianity (1854, reissued 1972, trans. of 2nd German ed.; originally published in German, 1841); FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE, Thus Spake Zarathustra (1896; originally issued in German, 1883-92); KARL MARX and FRIEDRICH ENGELS, On Religion (1955); THOMAS H. HUXLEY, Collected Essays, vol. 5 (1894); and LESLIE STEPHEN, An Agnostic's Apology, and Other Essays (1893), and History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century, 3rd ed., 2 vol., (1902, reissued 1963). Powerful contemporary defenses of atheism, together with some religious responses, are given in NORBERT O. SCHEDLER (ed.), Philosophy of Religion (1794).

Contemporary analytical discussions of atheism include MICHAEL SCRIVEN, Primary Philosophy (1966); RICHARD ROBINSON, An Atheist's Values (1964, reissued 1975); BERTRAND RUSSELL, Why I Am Not a Christian, and Other Essays on Religion and Related Subjects (1957); KAI NIELSEN, Skepticism (1973), and Reason and Practice (1971); SIDNEY HOOK, The Quest for Being, and Other Studies in Naturalism and Humanism (1961, reprinted 1971); and RONALD W. HEPBURN, Christianity and Paradox (1958, reissued 1968). Two anthologies that give the core debate between belief and unbelief are MALCOLM L. DIAMOND and THOMAS V. LITZENBURG, JR. (eds.), The Logic of God (1975); and ANTONY FLEW and ALASDAIR MacINTYRE and PAUL ROCOEUR, The Religious Significance of Atheism (1969); and MOSTAFA FAGHFOURY (ed.), Analytical Philosophy of Religion in Canada (1982).

 

   


[ ] [ 위로 ] [ Nature Worship ] [ Animism ] [ Totemism ] [ Ancestor Worship ] [ Ploytheism ] [ Pantheism and Panentheism ] [ Religious Dualism ] [ Monotheism ] [ Theism ] [ Deism ] [ Agnosticism ] [ Atheism ] [ Bibliography ]


 
 
 

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