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Philosophy 

철학 - 지혜의 탐구

WESTERN 
PHILOSOPHICAL 
SCHOOLS AND DOCTRINES

1 Introduction


2 ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL SCHOOLS

3 MODERN SCHOOLS

 

1 Introduction

It is the purpose of this article to examine in detail major schools of Western philosophy, ancient, medieval, and modern. Several of the ancient schools presented here developed around the philosophical systems of eponymous "founders." In the cases of Platonism and Aristotelianism, the treatments herein exclude the doctrines of Plato and Aristotle themselves, focussing rather on the survival and metamorphosis of these doctrines in subsequent thought; the original Platonic and Aristotelian systems are treated in full, along with the lives of the respective philosophers, in the Macropædia articles PLATONISM and ARISTOTELIANISM . While the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas is treated briefly below in the context of medieval Scholasticism, full treatment appears with the biography of Aquinas in the article THOMISM . The central systems of the major modern philosophers are likewise treated in conjunction with Macropædia biographies (namely, CARTESIANISM ; HEGELIANISM ; KANTIANISM ; MARXISM ), and the discussion of their philosophies is, therefore, excluded from the present section on modern schools of thought.

It should be noted that several of the schools and doctrines here classified as ancient underwent revivals or reformulations in later periods (e.g., Platonism, Skepticism); further, it could be argued that no philosophical school regarded as modern is without its precedent in the ancient tradition. The present material, therefore, is drawn together to facilitate comparing and contrasting what might be called the careers of these ideas. For chronological, narrative treatment of the development of Western philosophy, see the Macropædia article PHILOSOPHY, THE HISTORY OF WESTERN . (Ed.)


[ 목차 ] [ Ancient and Medieval ] [ Modern Schools ] [ Aristotelianism ] [ Atomism ] [ Eleaticism ] [ Epicureanism ] [ Platonism ] [ Pythagoreanism ] [ Realism ] [ Scholasticism ] [ Skepticism ] [ Sophists ] [ Stoicism ] [ Analytic/Linguistic ] [ Empiricism ] [ Existentialism ] [ Idealism ] [ Materialism ] [ Phenomenology ] [ Positivism/Empiricism ] [ Pragmatism ] [ Rationalism ] [ Utilitarianism ] [ Bibliography ]


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