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Philosophy 

철학 - 지혜의 탐구

4 Bibliography

 
 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. For bibliographies of Platonism and Aristotelianism, see the Macropædia articles PLATONISM and ARISTOTELIANISM , respectively.

 

4.1 Atomism:

E. CANTORE, Atomic Order: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Microphysics (1969); F. COPLESTON, A History of Philosophy, 8 vol. (1950-66); E.J. DIJKSTERHUIS, Die Mechanisierung des Weltbildes (1956; Eng. trans., The Mechanization of the World Picture, 1961), a history of science from antiquity to the 17th century; A.S. EDDINGTON, The Philosophy of Physical Science (1939); K. LASSWITZ, Geschichte der Atomistik vom Mittelalter bis Newton, 2 vol. (1890, reprinted 1963), a 19th-century classic; A.G.M. VAN MELSEN, Van atomos naar atoom (1949; Eng. trans., From Atomos to Atom: The History of the Concept Atom, 2nd ed. 1960), including references for the primary sources; L.K. NASH, The Atomic-Molecular Theory (1950), a discussion of the first phase of the chemical atomic theory; E.T. WHITTAKER, History of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, rev. ed., 2 vol. (1951-54), only for readers with a solid background in science; L.L. WHYTE, Essay on Atomism: From Democritus to 1960 (1961), a brief introduction to the idea of Atomism and its history. See also MRINALKAUTI GANGOPADHYAYA, Indian Atomism: History and Sources (1980).

 

4.2 Eleaticism:

The main edition of the fragments of the Eleatic, as of all the Pre-Socratic, philosophers is still HERMANN DIELS, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker (1903; 11th ed. rev. by WALTHER KRANZ, 3 vol., 1964), which is a critical edition of the Greek fragments with German translations; for English translations see KATHLEEN FREEMAN, Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers (1948, reprinted 1962); PILO ALBERTELLI, Gli Eleati: testimonianze e frammenti (1939), is a good Italian translation with commentary. Much of the best material is in general works on ancient Greek or Pre-Socratic philosophy. The most comprehensive treatment is in EDUARD ZELLER, Die Philosophie der Griechen, 6-7th ed., 3 vol., ed. by W. NESTLE (1920-23); in the revised Italian trans. of Zeller, ed. with extensive additions by ROLDOLFO MONDOLFO, the portion on the Eleatic school by GIOVANNI REALE (1967) occupies the whole 3rd volume of the 1st section and contains a good selected bibliography; an English translation of Zeller is entitled A History of Greek Philosophy, from the Earliest Period to the Time of Socrates, 2 vol. (1881). See also JOHN BURNET, Early Greek Philosophy, 4th ed. (1930, reprinted 1963); GEOFFREY KIRK and JOHN E. RAVEN, The Presocratic Philosophers, pp. 263-306 (1957); W.K.C. GUTHRIE, A History of Greek Philosophy, vol. 2 (1965); and GUIDO CALOGERO, Storia della logica antica, vol. 1, pp. 109-208 (1967).

 

4.3 Epicureanism:

The first complete collection of the extant works and fragments of Epicurus is H. USENER (ed.), Epicurea (1887, reprinted 1966). A smaller selection, with Eng. trans. and commentary, is CYRIL BAILEY (ed.), Epicurus: The Extant Remains (1926), a very useful book that includes the "Vatican Fragments." All of the ethical fragments (and several other items) are published in CARLO DIANO (ed.), Epicuri Ethica (1946), with extensive Latin commentaries. CARLO DIANO (ed. and trans.), Lettere di Epicuro e dei suoi (1946), contains 14 letters of Epicurus and his friends taken from Pap. Herc. 1418. G. ARRIGHETTI (ed.), Epicuro, Opere 2nd ed. (1967), contains all of the works and fragments (including the Peri Physeos), with notes and an index verborum; to be used with caution. Lucretius can be read in the three volumes prepared, with introduction, translations, and comments, by CYRIL BAILEY, Lucreti, De Rerum Natura (1947).

English translations of Epicurus and Lucretius include WHITNEY J. OATES (ed.), The Stoic and Epicurean Philosophers (1940), which contains translations by CYRIL BAILEY and by H.A.J. MUNRO. See also The Philosophy of Epicurus: Letters, Doctrines, and Parallel Passages from Lucretius, trans. by GEORGE K. STRODACH (1963); DIOGENES LAERTIUS, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, bk. 10 on Epicurus, trans. by R.D. HICKS (1925); and LUCRETIUS, On the Nature of the Universe, trans. by R.E. LATHAM (1964).

Valuable for its breadth and richness of detail, CYRIL BAILEY, The Greek Atomists and Epicurus (1928; new ed., 1964), is a fundamental work. For Epicurus' psychology and his relation to Aristotle, see CARLO DIANO, "La psicologia d'Epicuro e la teoria delle passioni," in Giornale critico della filosofia italiana (1939-42). A book that stresses Epicurus' anti-Platonism is N.W. DEWITT, Epicurus and His Philosophy (1954). Also important for its perceptive study of Epicurus' religiosity and ethics is A.J. FESTUGIERE, Épicure et ses dieux (1946; Eng. trans., Epicurus and His Gods, 1956). See also the article "Epikur," by W. SCHMID in the Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, 5:681-819 (1961); L.L. WHYTE, Essay on Atomism: From Democritus to 1960 (1961); and BENJAMIN FARRINGTON, The Faith of Epicurus (1967). G.D. HADZSITS, Lucretius and His Influence (1935), traces the influence of Epicurean ideas, especially since Roman times, in a broad perspective. For further bibliography, see PHILLIP DE LACY, "Some Recent Publications on Epicurus and Epicureanism (1937-1954)," in Classical Weekly, 48:169-177 (1955). BERNARD FRISCHER, The Sculpted Word: Epicureanism and Philosophical Recruitment in Ancient Greece (1982), a discussion of the school's success.

 

4.4 Pythagoreanism:

The collection of the fragments in HERMANN DIELS and WALTHER KRANZ, Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, 6th ed., vol. 1 (1951), is insufficient; additions are given in MARIA TIMPANARO CARDINI (ed.), Pitagorici: Testimonianze e frammenti, 3 vol. (1958-64); and in CORNELIA J. DE VOGEL, Pythagoras and Early Pythagoreanism (1966). For the pseudo-Pythagoreans, see HOLGER THESLEFF (ed.), The Pythagorean Texts of the Hellenistic Period (1965).

The best comprehensive introduction to Pythagoreanism is the long chapter "Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans," in W.K.C. GUTHRIE, A History of Greek Philosophy, vol. 1, pp. 146-340 (1962). Somewhat different approaches have been taken by DE VOGEL (op. cit.); and JAMES A. PHILIP, Pythagoras and Early Pythagoreanism (1966), works that demand more active criticism by the reader. Fairly full references to the discussion of Pythagoreanism up to 1960 are in WALTER BURKERT, Weisheit und Wissenschaft: Studien zu Pythagoras, Philolaos, und Platon (1962; Eng. trans., Lore and Science in Ancient Pythagoreanism, 1972), a highly technical and at times rather overcritical work. Among later technical discussions, likely to become influential, are the articles "Pythagoras" and "Pythagoreer" in Pauly-Wissowa Realencyclopädie, vol. 47, (1963), and suppl. vol. 10 (1965)--of the contributors, KURT VON FRITZ and H. DORRIE arrive at less controversial conclusions than B.L. VAN DER WAERDEN.

Hellenistic Pythagoreanism is treated in HOLGER THESLEFF, An Introduction to the Pythagorean Writings of the Hellenistic Period (1961); additions and corrections in Entretiens Fondation Hardt, vol. 18 (1972). Neo-Pythagoreanism is treated in PHILIP MERLAN, From Platonism to Neoplatonism (1953).

For up-to-date bibliographical accession, see L'Année philologique (annual), under the subject heading "Pythagorica" and the various Pythagoreans.

 

4.5 Realism:

There is no single monograph that covers comprehensively the whole topic of Realism. The following works will be helpful for the study of its particular phases.

For Medieval Realism, see M.H. CARRÉ, Realists and Nominalists (1946, reissued 1967). For Neo-realism and critical Realism, see E.B. HOLT et al., The New Realism (1912, reprinted 1970); DURANT DRAKE et al., Essays in Critical Realism (1920, reprinted 1968); RENÉ KREMER, La Théorie de la connaissance chez les néo-réalistes anglais (1928); T.E. HILL, "Realistic Theories," Contemporary Theories of Knowledge, pp. 77-205 (1961, reissued 1980), good general coverage of the American and English fields.

Neoscholastic Realisms are treated in LÉON NOËL, Le Réalisme immédiat (1938); and works by ÉTIENNE GILSON: Le Réalisme méthodique (1936), which presents the author's own views; ch. 5, "Vade Mecum of a Young Realist," trans. by W.J. QUINN, in R. HOUDE and J. MULLALLY (eds.), Philosophy of Knowledge (1960); and Réalisme Thomiste et critique de la connaissance (1939), a critique of the leading Neoscholastic views. For the linguistic approach, see MARTIN LEAN, Sense-Perception and Matter (1953, reprinted 1973); J.L. AUSTIN, Sense and Sensibilia (1962).

Universals in contemporary thought are treated in I.M. BOCHENSKI, ALONZO CHURCH, and NELSON GOODMAN, The Problem of Universals (1956); FARHANG ZABEEH, Universals (1966); PANAYOT BUTCHVAROV, Resemblance and Identity: An Examination of the Problem of Universals (1966, reissued 1982); NICHOLAS WOLTERSTORFF, On Universals: An Essay in Ontology (1970).

For Scientific Realism, see BERTRAND RUSSELL, Our Knowledge of the External World, rev. ed. (1926, various printings); W.H. WERKMEISTER, The Basis and Structure of Knowledge (1948, reissued 1968), bibliography, pp. 420-438; MORITZ SCHLICK, "Are Natural Laws Conventions?" in H. FEIGL and MAY BRODBECK (eds.), Readings in the Philosophy of Science, pp. 181-188 (1953); ROMANO HARRÉ, Theories and Things (1961); GROVER MAXWELL, "The Ontological Status of Theoretical Entities," in Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 3:3-27 (1962); J.J.C. SMART, Philosophy and Scientific Realism (1963); DAVID M. ARMSTRONG, Universals and Scientific Realism, 2 vol. (1980).

Other 20th-century Realisms are discussed in G.D. HICKS, Critical Realism (1938); JAMES FEIBLEMAN, The Revival of Realism (1946, reissued 1972); WILFRID SELLARS, Science, Perception and Reality (1963); R.M. CHISHOLM (ed.), Realism and the Background of Phenomenology (1961), convenient bibliography, pp. 290-304; J.D. WILD (ed.), The Return to Reason: Essays in Realistic Philosophy (1953); E.B. McGILVARY, Toward a Perspective Realism (1956); D.M. ARMSTRONG, A Materialist Theory of the Mind (1968); INGEBORG WIRTH, Realismus und Apriorismus in Nicolai Hartmanns Erkenntnistheorie (1965); GUSTAV BERGMANN, Realism: A Critique of Brentano and Meinong (1967).

 

4.6 Scholasticism:

For the latest and most detailed bibliography, see W. TOTOK, Handbuch der Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. 2, Mittelalter und frühe Neuzeit (1970). Among the most reliable, best grounded presentations of the whole period are: E. GILSON, History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages (1955); F. COPLESTON, A History of Philosophy, vol. 2, Mediaeval Philosophy, vol. 3, Late Mediaeval and Renaissance Philosophy (1950, 1953; paperback edition, 1962, 1963); M. DE WULF, Histoire de la philosophie médiévale, 6th ed., 3 vol. (1934-47; Eng. trans. of vol. 1, 1951); and E. BREHIER, La Philosophie du moyen âge, 2nd ed. (1949). Still indispensable, though obsolete in some details is: F. UEBERWEG, Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. 2, B. GEYER, Die patristische und scholastische Philosophie, 11th ed. (1928). Lucidly arranged and divided is the 13th volume of FLICHE-MARTIN, Histoire de l'Église: Le Mouvement doctrinal de XIe au XIVe siècle (1951), which includes contributions by A. Forest, F. van Steenberghen, and M. de Gandillac. M. GRABMANN's masterpiece, Die Geschichte der scholastischen Methode, 2 vol. (1909-11, reprinted 1956), covers only the time until the first years of the 13th century. For a first introduction for the general reader, see J. PIEPER, Scholastik (1960; Eng. trans., Scholasticism, 1960). Special problems concerning the continuing influence of medieval Scholasticism are treated in the following monographs: A. KOYRE, Descartes und die Scholastik (1923); A. TELLKAMP, Das Verhältnis John Locke's zur Scholastik (1927); and J.O. FLECKENSTEIN, Scholastik, Barock, exakte Wissenschaften (1949). The following are sources on Neoscholasticism: J.P. GOLINAS, La Restauration du Thomisme sous Leon XIII et les philosophies nouvelles (1959); GIOVANNI ROSSI, Le origini del Neotomismo nell'ambiente di studio del Collegio Alberoni (1957); A. VIEL, "Le Mouvement thomiste au XIXe siècle," Revue Thomiste (1909-10); E. BETTONI, La Situation actuelle de la philosophie parmi les catholiques dans les divers pays (1948), a survey of centres of study, institutes, and publications; and J.S. ZYBURA (ed.), Present-Day Thinkers and the New Scholasticism: An International Symposium (1926).

 

4.7 Skepticism:

The basic statements and arguments of various forms of Skepticism are given in: (Academic Skepticism)--CICERO, Academica and De natura deorum, both with trans. by H. RACKHAM, Loeb Classical Library (1956). (Pyrrhonian Skepticism)--SEXTUS EMPIRICUS, Adversus Mathematicos, with trans. by R.G. BURY, Loeb Classical Library: vol. 1-2, Against the Logicians and Outlines of Pyrrhonism (1933-36); vol. 3, Against the Physicists, Against the Ethicists (1936); vol. 4, Against the Professors (1959-60); and Scepticism, Man and God: Selections from the Major Writings of Sextus Empiricus, ed. by P. HALLIE, trans. by S.G. ETHERIDGE (1964). (Renaissance Skepticism)--MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE, "L'Apologie de Raimond Sebond," in PIERRE VILLEY (ed.), Les Essais de Michel de Montaigne, new ed. (1922). (Skepticism and fideism)--BLAISE PASCAL, Pensées, ed. by L. BRUNSCHVICG (1951). (Skepticism in relation to modern philosophy)--PIERRE BAYLE, Dictionnaire historique et critique, esp. the articles "Pyrrho" and "Zeno of Elea," both of which appear in BAYLE'S Historical and Critical Dictionary: Selections, trans. and ed. by RICHARD H. POPKIN (1965); DAVID HUME, Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, ed. by N. KEMP SMITH (1947); Enquiries Concerning the Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Morals, 2nd ed. (1957), and A Treatise of Human Nature, both ed. by L.A. SELBY-BIGGE (1958).

The standard studies of ancient Skepticism are: EDWYN R. BEVAN, Stoics and Sceptics (1959); VICTOR BROCHARD, Les Sceptiques grecs (1887); NORMAN MACCOLL, The Greek Sceptics from Pyrrho to Sextus (1869); MARY MILLS PATRICK, The Greek Sceptics (1929); LEON ROBIN, Pyrrhon et le scepticisme grec (1944); and EDUARD ZELLER, The Stoics, Epicureans and Sceptics, trans. by O.J. REICHEL (1880). A recent fine study of the epistemological problems involved in ancient Skepticism is CHARLOTTE L. STOUGH, Greek Skepticism (1969). See also RAOUL RICHTER, Der Skeptizismus in der Philosophie (1904-08); RICHARD H. POPKIN, "Skepticism," Encyclopedia of Philosophy, vol. 7, pp. 449-461 (1967), which contains a bibliography on the subject; these examine Skepticism from ancient times to the 19th century. JOHN OWEN, The Skeptics of the French Renaissance (1893), is an interesting discussion of Renaissance and 17th-century Skepticism, though not particularly scholarly. DON CAMERON ALLEN, Doubt's Boundless Sea: Skepticism and Faith in the Renaissance (1964); and RICHARD H. POPKIN, The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Descartes, rev. ed. (1968), which contains a lengthy bibliography, are studies of Renaissance Skepticism and its impact on philosophy and religion. RICHARD H. POPKIN, "Berkeley and Pyrrhonism," Review of Metaphysics, 5:223-246 (1951-52); "David Hume and the Pyrrhonian Controversy," ibid., 6:65-81 (1952-53); "David Hume: His Pyrrhonism and His Critique of Pyrrhonism," Philosophical Quarterly, 1:385-407 (1950-51); "The High Road to Pyrrhonism," American Philosophical Quarterly, 2:1-15 (1965); "The Skeptical Crisis and the Rise of Modern Philosophy," Review of Metaphysics, 7:132-151, 307-322, 499-510 (1953-54); "The Skeptical Precursors of David Hume," Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 16:61-71 (1955-56); and "Scepticism in the Enlightenment," in T. BESTERMANN (ed.), Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, 26:1321-1345 (1963), are specialized studies on aspects of Skepticism in relation to modern philosophy. ARNE NAESS, Scepticism (1968), is a most interesting attempt to clarify Skepticism in relation to contemporary thought and to defend it as a viable outlook today. BENSON MATES, Skeptical Essays (1981), discusses epistemological problems and free will.

 

4.8 Sophists:

Ancient sources and fragments are presented in R.K. SPRAGUE, The Older Sophists, a Complete Translation (1972), and in K. FREEMAN, Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers (1948), to be used together with Freeman's The Pre-Socratic Philosophers, 2nd ed. (1949). The original Greek texts are in H. DIELS and W. KRANZ (eds.), Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, 6th ed., vol. 2 (1952); and are edited with an Italian translation and commentary in M. UNTERSTEINER, Sofisti, 4 vol. (1949-62). (General discussions): T. GOMPERZ, Greek Thinkers, Eng. trans. by L. MAGNUS, vol. 1, bk. 3, ch. 5-7 (1901); M. UNTERSTEINER, The Sophists, Eng. trans. by K. FREEMAN (1954); W.K.C. GUTHRIE, A History of Greek Philosophy, vol. 3, The Fifth-Century Enlightenment (1969). G.B. KERFERD, The Sophistic Movement (1981), is a study of the intellectual contributions made by the movement.

The Second Sophistic period is treated in G.W. BOWERSOCK, Greek Sophists in the Roman Empire (1969).

 

4.9 Stoicism:

HANS VON ARNIM, Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, 4 vol. (1905-24), is the standard text collection. The following works of classic Stoic authors and substantive issues in Stoicism in antiquity are most conveniently available in the "Loeb Classical Library": MARCUS AURELIUS, Meditations; EPICTETUS, Discourses; CICERO, De fato, De finibus, De natura deorum, and Academica; DIOGENES LAERTIUS, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, vol. 2, book 7; SENECA, Epistulae Morales and Moral Essays; SEXTUS EMPIRICUS, Outlines of Pyrrhonism and Against the Dogmatists, 4 vol.; GEORGE MURRAY, The Stoic Philosophy (1915), the classical statement of the grandeur of the Stoic philosophy; MAX POHLENZ, Die Stoa, 2 vol. (1948-49); and PAUL BARTH, Die Stoa (1903), are representative of scholarly studies of Stoic philosophy; JOHNNY CHRISTENSEN, An Essay on the Unity of Stoic Philosophy (1962), is a recent and comprehensive essay; LUDWIG EDELSTEIN, The Meaning of Stoicism (1966); and JOSIAH B. GOULD, The Philosophy of Chrysippus (1970), are among the best of recent studies of Greco-Roman Stocism; EDUARD ZELLER, Die Philosophie der Griechen in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung, 5 vol. (1856-68; in part translated as Stoics, Epicureans, and Skeptics, rev. ed., 1962); EDWYN R. BEVAN, Stoics and Sceptics (1913, reprinted 1959); and ROBERT D. HICKS, Stoic and Epicurean (1910, reprinted 1962), are illustrations of Stoic philosophy in the Hellenistic period. See also JASON L. SAUNDERS, Greek and Roman Philosophy After Aristotle (1966); and HARRY A. WOLFSON, Philo: Foundations of Religious Philosophy in Judaism, Christianity and Islam, 2 vol. (1962). EDWARD V. ARNOLD, Roman Stoicism (1911, reprinted 1958); and FREDERICK W. BUSSELL, Marcus Aurelius and the Later Stoics (1910), are excellent statements of Stoicism in the later Roman period. PIERRE DE LABRIOLLE, Histoire de la littérature latine chrétienne (1920; Eng. trans., History and Literature of Christianity from Tertullian to Boethius, 1924), an excellent presentation of the influence of Stoic views in late antiquity and the patristic period; ETIENNE GILSON, History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages (1955); HARRY A. WOLFSON, The Philosophy of the Church Fathers, 3rd ed. rev. (1970); MAURICE DE WULF, Histoire de la philosophie médiéval, 2 vol. (1925; Eng. trans., History of Mediaeval Philosophy, 2 vol., 1926); and ISAAC HUSIK, A History of Medieval Jewish Philosophy (1940), are careful introductions to Stoic influences in patristic and medieval times; JASON L. SAUNDERS, Justus Lipsius: The Philosophy of Renaissance Stoicism (1955); HAROLD HOFFDING, A History of Modern Philosophy, 2 vol. (1950); and FREDERICK C. COPLESTON, A History of Philosophy, rev. ed., vol. 3-6 (1962), trace the Stoic influence from its revival in the Renaissance into modern philosophy. JOHN M. RIST (ed.), The Stoics (1978), is an excellent collection of essays covering logic, cosmology, ethics, psychology, and aesthetics.

Stoic logic and physics are treated in BENSON MATES, Stoic Logic (1953); SAMUEL SAMBURSKY, The Physical World of the Greeks, 2nd ed. (1960; orig. pub. in Hebrew) and Physics of the Stoics (1959).

 

4.10 Analytic and Linguistic philosophy:

G.J. WARNOCK, English Philosophy Since 1900 (1958), is a very readable account covering much of the history. J.O. URMSON, Philosophical Analysis (1956), is especially good on logical atomism and its demise. BERTRAND RUSSELL, The Problems of Philosophy (1959), is a nontechnical account of his views just prior to the period of logical atomism. A collection of Russell's papers, Logic and Knowledge, ed. by R.C. MARSH (1956), contains his "Lectures on Logical Atomism," together with more technical papers. G.E. MOORE, Some Main Problems of Philosophy (1953), gives a good introduction to his methods and philosophical concerns. Two key papers by Moore are "A Defence of Common Sense," in Contemporary British Philosophy, Second Series (1925), and "Proof of an External World," in Proceedings of the British Academy, 25:273-300 (1939). Among anthologies are those of A.J. AYER (ed.), Logical Positivism (1959), which also includes papers critical of the movement and has an excellent bibliography; BERNARD WILLIAMS and ALAN MONTEFIORE (eds.), British Analytical Philosophy (1966); RICHARD RORTY (ed.), The Linguistic Turn (1967); J.A. FODOR and J.J. KATZ (eds.), The Structure of Language (1964); and LEONARD LINSKY (ed.), Semantics and the Philosophy of Language (1952). The 1961 translation of WITTGENSTEIN'S Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus by D.F. PEARS and B.F. MCGUINESS is superior to the original English version. Wittgenstein's Philosophical Investigations (1953) is the best known and historically the most influential of the posthumously published works from his later period. A.J. AYER, Language, Truth and Logic, 2nd ed. (1946), remains the best introduction to Logical Positivism. GILBERT RYLE, The Concept of Mind (1949), is the most famous example of what has been called "ordinary language" philosophy. J.L. AUSTIN, How To Do Things with Words (1962), contains the most discussed features of his views. W.V.O. QUINE, From a Logical Point of View (1953), is a collection of fairly nontechnical essays that provide good examples of the continuing influence of formal logic.

 

4.11 Empiricism:

Classic texts include JOHN LOCKE, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 2 vol. (1690); DAVID HUME, A Treatise of Human Nature, book 1, pt. 1 (1739); IMMANUEL KANT, Kritik der reinen Vernunft (1781; Eng. trans., Critique of Pure Reason, 1929); JOHN STUART MILL, A System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, books 1 and 2 (1843).

W.H. WALSH, Reason and Experience (1947); and H.H. PRICE, Thinking and Experience, 2nd ed. (1969), are good general surveys. For a comprehensive selection of standard works from Locke to J.S. Mill, see A.J. AYER and R. WINCH (eds.), The British Empirical Philosophers (1952). Modern works in the Empiricist tradition include BERTRAND RUSSELL, Human Knowledge (1948); W.T. STACE, Theory of Knowledge and Existence (1932); RUDOLF CARNAP, Der logische Aufbau der Welt (1928; Eng. trans., The Logical Structure of the World, 1967); and A.J. AYER, Language, Truth and Logic, 2nd ed. (1946), a short exposition of the extreme Empiricist position. HAROLD MORICK (ed.), Challenges to Empiricism (1980), is a collection of essays.

 

4.12 Existentialism:

Fundamental texts include SOREN KIERKEGAARD, Philosophiske smuler (1844; Philosophical Fragments, 1936); Afsluttende uvidenskabelig efterskrift til de philosophiske smuler (1846; Concluding Unscientific Postscript, 1941). FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE, Also sprach Zarathustra (1883-84; Thus Spoke Zarathustra, trans. by W. KAUFMANN in The Portable Nietzsche, 1954); Zur Genealogie der Moral (1877; Toward a Genealogy of Morals, trans. by W. KAUFMANN in Basic Writings of Nietzsche, 1966). KARL JASPERS, Psychologie der Weltanschauungen (1919), the first work of contemporary Existentialism, announcing all of the fundamental theses; Philosophie, 3 vol. (1932; Philosophy, 3 vol., 1969-71); Vernunft und Existenz (1935; Eng. trans., Reason and Existenz, 1955). MARTIN HEIDEGGER, Sein und Zeit (1927; 10th ed., 1963; Being and Time, 1962); Was ist Metaphysik? (1929; "What Is Metaphysics?" trans. by R.F.C. HULL and A. CRICK in Existence and Being, 1949); Einführung in die Metaphysik (1953; An Introduction to Metaphysics, 1959). GABRIEL MARCEL, Être et Avoir (1935; Being and Having, 1949); Le Mystère de l'être, 2 vol. (1950; The Mystery of Being, 1950-51); The Philosophy of Existence, (1949). NICOLA ABBAGNANO, La struttura dell'esistenza (1939); N. LANGIULLI (ed. and trans.), Critical Existentialism (1969). JEAN-PAUL SARTRE, L'Être et le néant (1943; Being and Nothingness, 1956); L'Existentialisme est un humanisme (1946; Existentialism and Humanism, 1948). MAURICE MERLEAU-PONTY, La Structure du comportement (1942; The Structure of Behavior, 1963); Phénoménologie de la perception (1945; The Phenomenology of Perception, 1962).

Important surveys and analyses include MARJORIE GRENE, Dreadful Freedom (1948); HELMUT KUHN, Encounter with Nothingness: An Essay on Existentialism (1951); MAURICE NATANSON, A Critique of Jean-Paul Sartre's Ontology (1951); JAMES COLLINS, The Existentialists: A Critical Study (1952); WILLIAM BARRETT, What Is Existentialism? (1964); ADOLPH LICHTIGFELD, Jaspers' Metaphysics (1954); MARJORIE GRENE, Martin Heidegger (1957); MARY WARNOCK, Existentialism (1970); and ROBERT D. CUMMING, Starting Point (1979).

 

4.13 Idealism:

The two best books on Idealism in English are A.C. EWING, Idealism: A Critical Survey (1933); and R.F.A. HOERNLE, Idealism as a Philosophy (1927). A.C. EWING (ed.), The Idealist Tradition from Berkeley to Blanshard (1957), is a useful volume containing selections from the texts of the major Idealists and selected criticisms of Idealism. Other important collections are C. BARRETT (ed.), Contemporary Idealism in America (1932); J.H. MUIRHEAD (ed.), Contemporary British Philosophy: Personal Statements, First-Second Series, 2 vol. each (1924); and G.P. ADAMS and W.P. MONTAGUE (eds.), Contemporary American Philosophy, 2 vol. (1930). Works on the history and theory of the subject include: B. BLANSHARD, Reason and Analysis (1962), a careful critical examination of schools of philosophy opposed to Idealism; G.W. CUNNINGHAM, The Idealistic Argument in Recent British and American Philosophy (1933), a thorough and dependable treatise; S.N. DASGUPTA, Indian Idealism (1933); NICOLAI HARTMANN, Die Philosophie des Deutsches Idealismus, vol. 1, Fichte, Schelling, und die Romantik (1923), vol. 2, Hegel (1929), 2nd ed. (1 vol., 1960); A.J.M. MILNE, The Social Philosophy of English Idealism (1962); J.H. MUIRHEAD, The Platonic Tradition in Anglo-Saxon Philosophy: Studies in the History of Idealism in England and America (1931); P.T. RAJU, Idealistic Thought of India (1953); L.S. ROUNER (ed.), Philosophy, Religion, and the Coming World Civilization: Essays in Honor of William Ernest Hocking (1966); and A. STERN, Philosophy of History and the Problem of Values (1962), a good secondary source.

On the classical systems of Indian philosophy, see S. RADHAKRISHNAN, Indian Philosophy, 2 vol. (1923-27), an authoritative exposition; S.N. DASGUPTA, A History of Indian Philosophy, 5 vol. (1922-55), an erudite examination of the Sanskrit and Pali texts; Indian Idealism (1933); SRI AUROBINDO, The Life Divine (1949), a reinterpretation of the heritage; and SWAMI VIVEKANANDA, The Yogas and Other Works (1953), a collection with biography. In Pragmatism (1907) and in The Varieties of Religious Experience (1902), WILLIAM JAMES quoted Vivekananda at length as a typical representative of spiritual monism. In the Sacred Books of the East, 50 vol., ed. by F. MAX MULLER (1879-1910), see especially vol. 1 and 15, The Upanishads and vol. 8, The Bhagavadgîtâ. In the Harvard Oriental Series, 47 vol., ed. by CHARLES ROCKWELL LANMAN (1890-1968), see especially vol. 3, Buddhism in Translations, and vol. 17, The Yoga-System of Patañjali.

Writings of Idealists are listed in their biographies. P.A. SCHILPP, editor of "The Library of Living Philosophers Series," has issued four important volumes on Idealists: The Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, 2nd ed. (1951); The Philosophy of Ernst Cassirer (1949); The Philosophy of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1962); and The Philosophy of Martin Buber (1967); and a volume on Brand Blanshard is in preparation. Other works on Idealists include: J.H. COTTON, Royce on the Human Self (1954), one of the best books on Royce; D.S. ROBINSON, Royce and Hocking: American Idealists (1968); and GABRIEL MARCEL, La Métaphysique de Royce (1945; Eng. trans., 1956), which shows the relation of Marcel to Royce and Hocking. H.T. KIM, "Nishida and Royce," Philosophy East and West, 1:18-29 (1952), and "The Logic of the Illogical: Zen and Hegel," ibid., 5:19-29 (1955), are informative accounts of Nishida's contributions to Idealism. The following volumes of the Revue Internationale de Philosophie contain valuable bibliographies: Henri Bergson, vol. 3 (1948); Léon Brunschvicg, vol. 5 (1951); Hegel, vol. 6 (1952); George Berkeley, vol. 7 (1953); Benedetto Croce, vol. 7 (1953); Kant, vol. 8 (1954); Whitehead, vol. 15 (1961); Leibniz, vol. 20 (1966); and Josiah Royce, vol. 21 (1967). GODFREY VESEY (ed.), Idealism Past and Present (1982), includes historical essays on idealistic thought of the past 2,500 years.

 

4.14 Materialism:

For the period up to about 100 years ago, see F.A. LANGE, Geschichte des Materialismus und Kritik seiner Bedeutung in der Gegenwart, 2 vol. (1902; Eng. trans., History of Materialism and Criticism of Its Present Importance, 3rd ed., 3 vol. (1925). For more recent times, see JOHN PASSMORE, A Hundred Years of Philosophy, 2nd ed. (1966). There are excellent articles by KEITH CAMPBELL and H.B. ACTON on "Materialism" and "Dialectical Materialism" in the Encyclopedia of Philosophy, vol. 5, pp. 179-188 and vol. 2, pp. 389-397 (1967), which also contains excellent articles on nearly all of the noncontemporary philosophers here mentioned. Examples of work by most of the contemporary writers are given in JOHN O'CONNOR (ed.), Modern Materialism: Readings on Mind-Body Identity (1969); and C.V. BORST (ed.), The Mind-Brain Identity Theory (1970). See also HERBERT FEIGL, The "Mental" and the "Physical": The Essay and a Postscript (1967); J.J.C. SMART, Philosophy and Scientific Realism (1963); D.M. ARMSTRONG, A Materialist Theory of the Mind (1968); and WILFRID SELLARS, Science, Perception and Reality (1963), especially ch. 1. A rather difficult book defending Materialism from the difficulties about intentionality is D.C. DENNETT, Content and Consciousness (1969). For two very different styles of antimaterialist argument, see J.R. LUCAS, The Freedom of the Will (1970); and NORMAN MALCOLM, Problems of Mind (1971). Another interesting critique of Materialism is in JOHN BELOFF, The Existence of Mind (1962). A mainly mechanistic philosophy of biology is presented by the German biologist B. RENSCH in Biophilosophie auf erkenntnistheoretischer Grundlage (Panpsychistischer Identismus) (1968; Eng. trans., Biophilosophy, 1971), though Rensch's philosophy is also panpsychist.

Some classic Materialist works are: LUCRETIUS, On the Nature of the Universe, trans. by R.E. LATHAM (1951); THOMAS HOBBES, Body, Mind and Citizen: Selections, ed. by R.S. PETERS (1962); RENE DESCARTES, Philosophical Writings, trans. and ed. by ELIZABETH ANSCOMBE and P.T. GEACH (1954); and A. VARTANIAN, La Mettrie's "L'Homme Machine": A Study in the Origins of an Idea (1960), which is a critical edition with introductory monograph and notes.

For epistemic Materialism, see RUDOLF CARNAP, "Psychology in Physical Language," in A.J. AYER (ed.), Logical Positivism (1959); Carnap's replies to Herbert Feigl and A.J. Ayer in P.A. SCHILPP (ed.), The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap (1964); and H. REICHENBACH, Experience and Prediction (1938).

The most relevant and important works by Ryle and Wittgenstein are: GILBERT RYLE, The Concept of Mind (1949); and LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN, Philosophical Investigations (1953). For a Materialist critique of Ryle, see BRIAN MEDLIN, "Ryle and the Mechanical Hypothesis," in C.F. PRESLEY (ed.), The Identity Theory of Mind, 2nd ed. (1971).

 

4.15 Phenomenology:

Most of the classical works on Phenomenology were written by Husserl himself (see the bibliography of the HUSSERL article). In EDMUND HUSSERL, Logische Untersuchungen, 2nd ed., 2 vol. (1913-21; Eng. trans., Logical Investigations, 2 vol., 1970), one of the fundamental texts on Phenomenology, the phenomenological method is applied in the area of logic. The following works appeared in the journal Jahrbuch für Philosophie und phänomenologische Forschung (1913-30); Husserl's Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie und phänomenologischen Philosophie (1913; Eng. trans., Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology, 1931, reprinted 1969), through which Phenomenology established itself as transcendental philosophy and received worldwide reaction; Vorlesungen zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewusstseins (1928; Eng. trans., The Phenomenology of Internal Time-Consciousness, 1964); and Formale und transzendentale Logik (1929; Eng. trans., Formal and Transcendental Logic, 1969); MAX SCHELER, Der Formalismus in der Ethik (1916); and MARTIN HEIDEGGER, Sein und Zeit (1927; Eng. trans., Being and Time, 1962). The following works appeared in the series Husserliana (Husserl's collected works): Cartesianische Meditationen und Pariser Vorträge (1950; Eng. trans., The Paris Lectures, 1964), which contains the text of the Paris lectures of 1929 and the subsequent elaboration; Die Idee der Phänomenologie (1950: Eng. trans., The Idea of Phenomenology, 1964), an introduction to Phenomenology in five lectures from 1907; Ideen, 3 vol. (1950-52); Die Krisis der europäischen Wissenschaften und die transzendentale Phänomenologie (1954; Eng. trans., The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology, 1970), Husserl's later work (1934-37), significant for the problems regarding the life-world; Erste Philosophie, 2 vol. (1956-59), a critical history of ideas and a theory of reduction presented in a series of lectures, 1923-24; Phänomenologische Psychologie (1962), lectures from 1925, a different wording of the Encyclopædia Britannica article of 1927, with remarks by Heidegger and the Amsterdam addresses of 1925; Zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewusstseins (1966), text on the problem of time from 1893-1917 with lectures (in the middle) from 1905 on the inner time-consciousness (first edited by Heidegger); Analysen zur passiven Synthesis (1966), a phenomenological analysis having sensation as its subject matter; and Philosophie der Arithmetik (1970), early manuscripts from 1890 to 1901. His The Basic Problems of Phenomenology, trans. by ALBERT HOFSTADTER (1982; originally published in German., 1975), reproduces a course of lectures given in 1927. See also JOSEPH J. KOCKELMANS, Edmund Husserl's Phenomenological Psychology (1967); and RUDOLF BOEHM, Vom Gesichtspunkt der Phänomenologie (1968).

In the series "Phaenomenologica" works are published that are written from a Phenomenological perspective, HERBERT SPIEGELBERG, The Phenomenological Movement, 2nd ed., 2 vol. (1965), worthy of particular mention, also appeared in this series. Since 1904 MARVIN FARBER has edited the journal Philosophy and Phenomenological Research (by no means, however, exclusively dedicated to Phenomenology). In England The Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology first appeared in 1970. In the United States the following journals have appeared: Journal of Phenomenological Psychology (semi-annual); Research in Phenomenology (1971); and Analecta Husserliana: The Yearbook of Phenomenological Research.

 

4.16 Positivism and Logical Empiricism:

Literature on Classical Positivism includes J. WATSON, Comte, Mill and Spencer (1895); W.M. SIMON, European Positivism in the Nineteenth Century (1963); JOHN STUART MILL, Auguste Comte and Positivism (1865); AUGUSTE COMTE, Cours de philosophie positive, 6 vol. (1830-42; Eng. trans. and cond. by H. MARTINEAU, The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte, 2 vol., 1853). For further references to the ethical views of the classical Positivists, see the bibliography of Utilitarianism in the Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Many of the original classics of Logical Positivism and Logical Empiricism, both books and articles, are listed in the ample bibliography of A.J. AYER (ed.), Logical Positivism (1959), an anthology that contains, among other important essays, RUDOLF CARNAP'S "Psychology in Physical Language." The early history of Viennese Positivism is well told in VICTOR KRAFT, Der Wiener Kreis: Der Ursprung des Neopositivismus (1950, 2nd ed. 1968; Eng. trans., The Vienna Circle, 1953, reprinted 1969). Another important source is J. JOERGENSEN, The Development of Logical Empiricism, vol. 2, no. 9 of the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science (1951). For a brief account of the European movement of Logical Positivism and its migration and impact in the United States, see H. FEIGL, "The Wiener Kreis in America," in D. FLEMING and B. BAYLIN (eds.), The Intellectual Migration: Europe and America 1930-1960 (1969). Books, mainly in the foundations of the sciences, but also in philosophy of language and epistemology, many by the leading Logical Empiricists, are listed in the ample Bibliography and Index, in HERBERT FEIGL and CHARLES MORRIS (eds.), International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 2, no. 10 (1969). Of direct relevance are the major works of R. Carnap, O. Neurath, M. Schlick, P. Frank, H. Reichenbach, E. Nagel, C.G. Hempel, R. von Mises, and Charles Morris. For criticisms, those of KARL R. POPPER may be used; and the intellectual autobiography of Carnap, the 26 descriptive and critical essays, and his replies, in P.A. SCHILPP (ed.), The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap (1963). For more recent evaluations and reactions, see P. ACHINSTEIN and S.F. BARKER (eds.), The Legacy of Logical Positivism: Studies in the Philosophy of Science (1969); and Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science, vol. 1-5 (1956-70).

 

4.17 Pragmatism:

Classic works include CHARLES SANDERS PEIRCE, "The Fixation of Belief," "How to Make Our Ideas Clear," and "What Pragmatism Is," in Collected Papers, vol. 5, ed. by C. HARTSHORNE and P. WEISS (1934); WILLIAM JAMES, Principles of Psychology, 2 vol. (1890), The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy (1897), Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking (1907), and The Meaning of Truth (1909); JOHN DEWEY, How We Think (1910), The Influence of Darwin on Philosophy (1910), Democracy and Education (1916), Essays in Experimental Logic (1916), Reconstruction in Philosophy (1920, 1948), Human Nature and Conduct (1922), Logic: The Theory of Inquiry (1938), Theory of Valuation (1939), and Problems of Men (1946). On F.C.S. Schiller see R. ABEL, The Pragmatic Humanism of F.C.S. Schiller (1955), with a bibliography of Schiller's writings; on French and Italian pragmatists, H.S. THAYER, Meaning and Action: A Critical History of Pragmatism, part 3 (1968), with further bibliographical references.

For surveys of the movement, see H.S. THAYER, Meaning and Action: A Critical History of Pragmatism (1968), with bibliography; "Pragmatism," in D.J. O'CONNOR (ed.), A Critical History of Western Philosophy, pp. 437-462 (1964); and H.S. THAYER (ed.), Pragmatism: The Classic Writings (1970), the basic writings in the Pragmatism of Peirce, James, Dewey, Mead, and Lewis, and further bibliographical references; John Dewey, "The Development of American Pragmatism," in Philosophy and Civilization, pp. 13-35 (1931); and CHARLES W. MORRIS, The Pragmatic Movement in American Philosophy (1970). JACQUES BARZUN, A Stroll with William James (1983), is an excellent discussion of his ideas.

 

4.18 Rationalism:

The classic Ancient Greek work is PLATO, Meno; essential modern works are DESCARTES, Meditationes de Prima Philosophia . . . (Meditations on First Philosophy): SPINOZA, Ethics; LEIBNIZ, Monadologie (Monadology and Other Philosophical Writings); KANT, Kritik der reinen Vernunft (Critique of Pure Reason); 19th century. Rationalism is epitomized in HEGEL, Phänomenologie des Geistes (Phenomenology of Mind); FRANCIS HERBERT BRADLEY, Appearance and Reality.

For Rationalism in the theory of knowledge, see BRAND BLANSHARD, Reason and Analysis (1962); GEORGE BOAS, Rationalism in Greek Philosophy (1961); ERNST CASSIRER, Die Philosophie der Aufklärung (1932; Eng. trans., Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 1951); M.R. COHEN, Reason and Nature: An Essay on the Meaning of Scientific Method, 2nd ed. (1953): A.C. EWING, Idealism: A Critical Survey (1934); H.H. JOACHIM, The Nature of Truth (1906); A.E. MURPHY, The Uses of Reason (1943); H.J. PATON, In Defence of Reason (1951); BERTRAND RUSSELL, Problems of Philosophy (1912); W.H. WALSH, Reason and Experience (1947).

For Rationalism in metaphysics, see the classics listed above. For two outstanding examples from the present century, see J.M.E. McTAGGART, The Nature of Existence, 2 vol. (1921-27), together with the commentary of C.D. BROAD, Examination of McTaggart's Philosophy, 2 vol. (1933-38); and ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD, Process and Reality (1929). For Rationalism in ethics, see WILLIAM WOLLASTON, The Religion of Nature Delineated (1722); and KANT, Die Metaphysik der Sitten (1785; Eng. trans., The Metaphysics of Morals, 1799). For early forms of the appeal to self-evident rules, see RICHARD PRICE, A Review of the Principal Questions in Morals (1758). For later types of Rationalism, see G.E. MOORE, Principia Ethica (1903); W.D. ROSS, The Right and the Good (1930), and Foundations of Ethics (1939); BRIAN ELLIS, Rational Belief System (1979).

For Rationalism in religion, excellent standard works are: W.E.H. LECKY, History of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe, 2 vol. (1865); A.D. WHITE, History of the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom, 2 vol. (1910); J.M. ROBERTSON, A Short History of Freethought, Ancient and Modern, 2nd ed., 2 vol. (1906); A.W. BENN, History of English Rationalism in the Nineteenth Century, 2 vol. (1906); J.B. BURY, A History of Freedom of Thought (1913). SIGMUND FREUD, Die Zukunft einer Illusion (1927; Eng. trans., The Future of an Illusion, 1928), offers a psychoanalytic study of religious belief.

 

4.19 Utilitarianism:

The classical texts are JEREMY BENTHAM, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789; 2nd ed., 1823); JOHN STUART MILL, Utilitarianism (1861; 4th ed., 1871); HENRY SIDGWICK, The Methods of Ethics (1874; 7th ed., 1907); G.E. MOORE, Principia Ethica (1903) and Ethics (1912); D.D. RAPHAEL (ed.), British Moralists: 1650-1800, 2 vol. (1969), containing selected readings.

Useful anthologies include MARY PETER MACK (ed.), A Bentham Reader (1969); J.B. SCHNEEWIND (ed.), Mill's Ethical Writings (1965); SAMUEL GOROVITZ (ed.), Utilitarianism: John Stuart Mill with Critical Essays (1971).

Secondary, historical, and contemporary studies include DAVID LYONS, Jeremy Bentham (1972) ERNEST ALBEE, A History of English Utilitarianism (1902, reprinted 1957); LESLIE STEPHEN, The English Utilitarians, 3 vol. (1900, reprinted 1968); ELIE HALEVY, La Formation du radicalisme philosophique, 3 vol. (1901-04; Eng. trans., The Growth of Philosophical Radicalism, 1928); J.P. PLAMENATZ, The English Utilitarians (1949); J.B. SCHNEEWIND (ed.), Mill: A Collection of Critical Essays (1968); STEPHEN TOULMIN, An Examination of the Place of Reason in Ethics (1950); P.H. NOWELL-SMITH, Ethics, ch. 16 (1954); RICHARD BRANDT, Ethical Theory, ch. 12-15 (1959); DAVID LYONS, Forms and Limits of Utilitarianism (1965); JAN NARVESON, Morality and Utility (1967); MICHAEL D. BAYLES (ed.), Contemporary Utilitarianism (1968); J.J.C. SMART, An Outline of a System of Utilitarian Ethics (1961). DONALD REGAN, Utilitarianism and Cooperation (1980), a presentation of a new utilitarian theory with a good survey of disputes among utilitarians.

 
   


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