BIBLIOGRAPHY. For bibliographies of
Platonism and Aristotelianism, see the Macropædia
articles PLATONISM and ARISTOTELIANISM
E. CANTORE, Atomic Order: An Introduction
to the Philosophy of Microphysics (1969); F. COPLESTON, A
History of Philosophy, 8 vol. (1950-66); E.J. DIJKSTERHUIS, Die
Mechanisierung des Weltbildes (1956; Eng. trans., The Mechanization of the World Picture, 1961), a history of science
from antiquity to the 17th century; A.S. EDDINGTON, The Philosophy of Physical Science (1939); K. LASSWITZ, Geschichte
der Atomistik vom Mittelalter bis Newton, 2 vol. (1890, reprinted 1963), a
19th-century classic; A.G.M. VAN MELSEN, Van
atomos naar atoom (1949; Eng. trans., From
Atomos to Atom: The History of the Concept Atom, 2nd ed. 1960), including
references for the primary sources; L.K. NASH, The
Atomic-Molecular Theory (1950), a discussion of the first phase of the
chemical atomic theory; E.T. WHITTAKER, History
of the Theories of Aether and Electricity, rev. ed., 2 vol. (1951-54), only
for readers with a solid background in science; L.L. WHYTE, Essay
on Atomism: From Democritus to 1960 (1961), a brief introduction to the idea
of Atomism and its history. See also MRINALKAUTI GANGOPADHYAYA,
Indian Atomism: History and Sources (1980).
The main edition of the fragments of the
Eleatic, as of all the Pre-Socratic, philosophers is still HERMANN DIELS, Die
Fragmente der Vorsokratiker (1903; 11th ed. rev. by WALTHER KRANZ, 3 vol.,
1964), which is a critical edition of the Greek fragments with German
translations; for English translations see KATHLEEN FREEMAN, Ancilla
to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers (1948, reprinted 1962); PILO ALBERTELLI, Gli
Eleati: testimonianze e frammenti (1939), is a good Italian translation with
commentary. Much of the best material is in general works on ancient Greek or
Pre-Socratic philosophy. The most comprehensive treatment is in EDUARD ZELLER, Die
Philosophie der Griechen, 6-7th ed., 3 vol., ed. by W. NESTLE (1920-23); in
the revised Italian trans. of Zeller, ed. with extensive additions by ROLDOLFO
MONDOLFO, the portion on the Eleatic school by GIOVANNI REALE (1967) occupies
the whole 3rd volume of the 1st section and contains a good selected
bibliography; an English translation of Zeller is entitled A
History of Greek Philosophy, from the Earliest Period to the Time of Socrates, 2
vol. (1881). See also JOHN BURNET, Early
Greek Philosophy, 4th ed. (1930, reprinted 1963); GEOFFREY KIRK and JOHN E.
RAVEN, The Presocratic Philosophers, pp.
263-306 (1957); W.K.C. GUTHRIE, A History
of Greek Philosophy, vol. 2 (1965); and GUIDO CALOGERO, Storia
della logica antica, vol. 1, pp. 109-208 (1967).
The first complete collection of the
extant works and fragments of Epicurus is H. USENER (ed.), Epicurea (1887, reprinted 1966). A smaller selection, with Eng.
trans. and commentary, is CYRIL BAILEY (ed.), Epicurus: The Extant Remains (1926), a very useful book that
includes the "Vatican Fragments." All of the ethical fragments (and
several other items) are published in CARLO DIANO (ed.), Epicuri Ethica (1946), with extensive Latin commentaries. CARLO
DIANO (ed. and trans.), Lettere di Epicuro
e dei suoi (1946), contains 14 letters of Epicurus and his friends taken
from Pap. Herc. 1418. G. ARRIGHETTI (ed.), Epicuro, Opere 2nd ed. (1967), contains all of the works and
fragments (including the Peri Physeos),
with notes and an index verborum; to
be used with caution. Lucretius can be read in the three volumes prepared, with
introduction, translations, and comments, by CYRIL BAILEY, Lucreti, De Rerum Natura (1947).
English translations of Epicurus and
Lucretius include WHITNEY J. OATES (ed.), The
Stoic and Epicurean Philosophers (1940), which contains translations by
CYRIL BAILEY and by H.A.J. MUNRO. See also The
Philosophy of Epicurus: Letters, Doctrines, and Parallel Passages from
Lucretius, trans. by GEORGE K. STRODACH (1963); DIOGENES LAERTIUS, Lives
of Eminent Philosophers, bk. 10 on Epicurus, trans. by R.D. HICKS (1925);
and LUCRETIUS, On the Nature of the Universe, trans. by R.E. LATHAM (1964).
Valuable for its breadth and richness of
detail, CYRIL BAILEY, The Greek Atomists
and Epicurus (1928; new ed., 1964), is a fundamental work. For Epicurus'
psychology and his relation to Aristotle, see CARLO DIANO, "La psicologia
d'Epicuro e la teoria delle passioni," in Giornale critico della filosofia italiana (1939-42). A book that
stresses Epicurus' anti-Platonism is N.W. DEWITT, Epicurus and His Philosophy (1954). Also important for its
perceptive study of Epicurus' religiosity and ethics is A.J. FESTUGIERE, Épicure
et ses dieux (1946; Eng. trans., Epicurus
and His Gods, 1956). See also the article "Epikur," by W. SCHMID
in the Reallexikon für Antike und Christentum, 5:681-819 (1961); L.L.
WHYTE, Essay on Atomism: From Democritus
to 1960 (1961); and BENJAMIN FARRINGTON, The Faith of Epicurus (1967). G.D. HADZSITS, Lucretius and His Influence (1935), traces the influence of
Epicurean ideas, especially since Roman times, in a broad perspective. For
further bibliography, see PHILLIP DE LACY, "Some Recent Publications on
Epicurus and Epicureanism (1937-1954)," in Classical Weekly, 48:169-177 (1955). BERNARD FRISCHER, The
Sculpted Word: Epicureanism and Philosophical Recruitment in Ancient Greece
(1982), a discussion of the school's success.
The collection of the fragments in
HERMANN DIELS and WALTHER KRANZ, Die
Fragmente der Vorsokratiker, 6th ed., vol. 1 (1951), is insufficient;
additions are given in MARIA TIMPANARO CARDINI (ed.), Pitagorici:
Testimonianze e frammenti, 3 vol. (1958-64); and in CORNELIA J. DE VOGEL, Pythagoras
and Early Pythagoreanism (1966). For the pseudo-Pythagoreans, see HOLGER
THESLEFF (ed.), The Pythagorean Texts of the Hellenistic Period (1965).
The best comprehensive introduction to
Pythagoreanism is the long chapter "Pythagoras and the Pythagoreans,"
in W.K.C. GUTHRIE, A History of Greek
Philosophy, vol. 1, pp. 146-340 (1962). Somewhat different approaches have
been taken by DE VOGEL (op. cit.); and
JAMES A. PHILIP, Pythagoras and Early
Pythagoreanism (1966), works that demand more active criticism by the
reader. Fairly full references to the discussion of Pythagoreanism up to 1960
are in WALTER BURKERT, Weisheit und
Wissenschaft: Studien zu Pythagoras, Philolaos, und Platon (1962; Eng.
trans., Lore and Science in Ancient
Pythagoreanism, 1972), a highly technical and at times rather overcritical
work. Among later technical discussions, likely to become influential, are the
articles "Pythagoras" and "Pythagoreer" in Pauly-Wissowa Realencyclopädie, vol. 47, (1963), and suppl.
vol. 10 (1965)--of the contributors, KURT VON FRITZ and H. DORRIE arrive at less
controversial conclusions than B.L. VAN DER WAERDEN.
Hellenistic Pythagoreanism is treated in
HOLGER THESLEFF, An Introduction to the
Pythagorean Writings of the Hellenistic Period (1961); additions and
corrections in Entretiens Fondation Hardt,
vol. 18 (1972). Neo-Pythagoreanism is treated in PHILIP MERLAN, From
Platonism to Neoplatonism (1953).
For up-to-date bibliographical
accession, see L'Année philologique
(annual), under the subject heading "Pythagorica" and the various
There is no single monograph that covers
comprehensively the whole topic of Realism. The following works will be helpful
for the study of its particular phases.
For Medieval Realism, see M.H. CARRÉ,
Realists and Nominalists (1946,
reissued 1967). For Neo-realism and critical Realism, see E.B. HOLT et al., The New Realism (1912, reprinted 1970); DURANT DRAKE et
al., Essays in Critical Realism (1920, reprinted 1968); RENÉ KREMER, La
Théorie de la connaissance chez les néo-réalistes anglais (1928);
T.E. HILL, "Realistic Theories," Contemporary
Theories of Knowledge, pp. 77-205 (1961, reissued 1980), good general
coverage of the American and English fields.
Neoscholastic Realisms are treated in LÉON
NOËL, Le Réalisme immédiat
(1938); and works by ÉTIENNE GILSON: Le
Réalisme méthodique (1936), which presents the author's own
views; ch. 5, "Vade Mecum of a Young Realist," trans. by W.J. QUINN,
in R. HOUDE and J. MULLALLY (eds.), Philosophy
of Knowledge (1960); and Réalisme
Thomiste et critique de la connaissance (1939), a critique of the leading
Neoscholastic views. For the linguistic approach, see MARTIN LEAN, Sense-Perception
and Matter (1953, reprinted 1973); J.L. AUSTIN, Sense and Sensibilia (1962).
Universals in contemporary thought are
treated in I.M. BOCHENSKI, ALONZO CHURCH, and NELSON GOODMAN, The
Problem of Universals (1956); FARHANG ZABEEH, Universals
(1966); PANAYOT BUTCHVAROV, Resemblance
and Identity: An Examination of the Problem of Universals (1966, reissued
1982); NICHOLAS WOLTERSTORFF, On
Universals: An Essay in Ontology (1970).
For Scientific Realism, see BERTRAND
RUSSELL, Our Knowledge of the External
World, rev. ed. (1926, various printings); W.H. WERKMEISTER, The
Basis and Structure of Knowledge (1948, reissued 1968), bibliography, pp.
420-438; MORITZ SCHLICK, "Are Natural Laws Conventions?" in H. FEIGL
and MAY BRODBECK (eds.), Readings in the
Philosophy of Science, pp. 181-188 (1953); ROMANO HARRÉ, Theories
and Things (1961); GROVER MAXWELL, "The Ontological Status of
Theoretical Entities," in Minnesota
Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 3:3-27 (1962); J.J.C. SMART, Philosophy
and Scientific Realism (1963); DAVID M. ARMSTRONG, Universals
and Scientific Realism, 2 vol. (1980).
Other 20th-century Realisms are
discussed in G.D. HICKS, Critical Realism (1938);
JAMES FEIBLEMAN, The Revival of Realism (1946,
reissued 1972); WILFRID SELLARS, Science,
Perception and Reality (1963); R.M. CHISHOLM (ed.), Realism and the Background of Phenomenology (1961), convenient
bibliography, pp. 290-304; J.D. WILD (ed.), The
Return to Reason: Essays in Realistic Philosophy (1953); E.B. McGILVARY, Toward
a Perspective Realism (1956); D.M. ARMSTRONG, A
Materialist Theory of the Mind (1968); INGEBORG WIRTH, Realismus
und Apriorismus in Nicolai Hartmanns Erkenntnistheorie (1965); GUSTAV
BERGMANN, Realism: A Critique of Brentano
and Meinong (1967).
For the latest and most detailed
bibliography, see W. TOTOK, Handbuch der
Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. 2, Mittelalter
und frühe Neuzeit (1970). Among the most reliable, best grounded
presentations of the whole period are: E. GILSON, History of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages (1955); F.
COPLESTON, A History of Philosophy, vol.
2, Mediaeval Philosophy, vol. 3, Late
Mediaeval and Renaissance Philosophy (1950, 1953; paperback edition, 1962,
1963); M. DE WULF, Histoire de la philosophie médiévale, 6th ed., 3 vol.
(1934-47; Eng. trans. of vol. 1, 1951); and E. BREHIER, La Philosophie du moyen âge, 2nd ed. (1949). Still
indispensable, though obsolete in some details is: F. UEBERWEG, Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie, vol. 2, B. GEYER, Die
patristische und scholastische Philosophie, 11th ed. (1928). Lucidly
arranged and divided is the 13th volume of FLICHE-MARTIN, Histoire
de l'Église: Le Mouvement doctrinal de XIe au XIVe
siècle (1951), which includes contributions by A. Forest, F. van
Steenberghen, and M. de Gandillac. M. GRABMANN's masterpiece, Die
Geschichte der scholastischen Methode, 2 vol. (1909-11, reprinted 1956),
covers only the time until the first years of the 13th century. For a first
introduction for the general reader, see J. PIEPER, Scholastik (1960; Eng. trans., Scholasticism,
1960). Special problems concerning the continuing influence of medieval
Scholasticism are treated in the following monographs: A. KOYRE, Descartes
und die Scholastik (1923); A. TELLKAMP, Das
Verhältnis John Locke's zur Scholastik (1927); and J.O. FLECKENSTEIN, Scholastik, Barock, exakte Wissenschaften (1949). The following are
sources on Neoscholasticism: J.P. GOLINAS, La
Restauration du Thomisme sous Leon XIII et les philosophies nouvelles (1959);
GIOVANNI ROSSI, Le origini del Neotomismo
nell'ambiente di studio del Collegio Alberoni (1957); A. VIEL, "Le
Mouvement thomiste au XIXe siècle," Revue Thomiste (1909-10); E. BETTONI, La Situation actuelle de la philosophie parmi les catholiques dans les
divers pays (1948), a survey of centres of study, institutes, and
publications; and J.S. ZYBURA (ed.), Present-Day
Thinkers and the New Scholasticism: An International Symposium (1926).
The basic statements and arguments of
various forms of Skepticism are given in: (Academic Skepticism)--CICERO, Academica
and De natura deorum, both with trans. by H. RACKHAM, Loeb Classical
Library (1956). (Pyrrhonian Skepticism)--SEXTUS EMPIRICUS, Adversus Mathematicos, with trans. by R.G. BURY, Loeb Classical
Library: vol. 1-2, Against the Logicians and
Outlines of Pyrrhonism (1933-36); vol.
3, Against the Physicists, Against the
Ethicists (1936); vol. 4, Against the
Professors (1959-60); and Scepticism,
Man and God: Selections from the Major Writings of Sextus Empiricus, ed. by
P. HALLIE, trans. by S.G. ETHERIDGE (1964). (Renaissance Skepticism)--MICHEL DE
MONTAIGNE, "L'Apologie de Raimond Sebond," in PIERRE VILLEY (ed.), Les
Essais de Michel de Montaigne, new ed. (1922). (Skepticism and
fideism)--BLAISE PASCAL, Pensées, ed. by L. BRUNSCHVICG (1951). (Skepticism in
relation to modern philosophy)--PIERRE BAYLE, Dictionnaire
historique et critique, esp. the articles "Pyrrho" and "Zeno
of Elea," both of which appear in BAYLE'S Historical and Critical Dictionary: Selections, trans. and ed. by
RICHARD H. POPKIN (1965); DAVID HUME, Dialogues
Concerning Natural Religion, ed. by N. KEMP SMITH (1947); Enquiries
Concerning the Human Understanding and Concerning the Principles of Morals, 2nd
ed. (1957), and A Treatise of Human
Nature, both ed. by L.A. SELBY-BIGGE (1958).
The standard studies of ancient
Skepticism are: EDWYN R. BEVAN, Stoics and
Sceptics (1959); VICTOR BROCHARD, Les
Sceptiques grecs (1887); NORMAN MACCOLL, The
Greek Sceptics from Pyrrho to Sextus (1869); MARY MILLS PATRICK, The Greek Sceptics (1929); LEON ROBIN, Pyrrhon et le scepticisme grec (1944); and EDUARD ZELLER, The
Stoics, Epicureans and Sceptics, trans. by O.J. REICHEL (1880). A recent
fine study of the epistemological problems involved in ancient Skepticism is
CHARLOTTE L. STOUGH, Greek Skepticism (1969). See also RAOUL RICHTER, Der
Skeptizismus in der Philosophie (1904-08); RICHARD H. POPKIN,
"Skepticism," Encyclopedia of
Philosophy, vol. 7, pp. 449-461 (1967), which contains a bibliography on the
subject; these examine Skepticism from ancient times to the 19th century. JOHN
OWEN, The Skeptics of the French
Renaissance (1893), is an interesting discussion of Renaissance and
17th-century Skepticism, though not particularly scholarly. DON CAMERON ALLEN, Doubt's
Boundless Sea: Skepticism and Faith in the Renaissance (1964); and RICHARD
H. POPKIN, The History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Descartes, rev. ed.
(1968), which contains a lengthy bibliography, are studies of Renaissance
Skepticism and its impact on philosophy and religion. RICHARD H. POPKIN,
"Berkeley and Pyrrhonism," Review
of Metaphysics, 5:223-246 (1951-52); "David Hume and the Pyrrhonian
Controversy," ibid., 6:65-81
(1952-53); "David Hume: His Pyrrhonism and His Critique of
Pyrrhonism," Philosophical Quarterly,
1:385-407 (1950-51); "The High Road to Pyrrhonism," American
Philosophical Quarterly, 2:1-15
(1965); "The Skeptical Crisis and the Rise of Modern Philosophy," Review of Metaphysics, 7:132-151, 307-322, 499-510 (1953-54);
"The Skeptical Precursors of David Hume," Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 16:61-71 (1955-56); and
"Scepticism in the Enlightenment," in T. BESTERMANN (ed.), Studies
on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, 26:1321-1345 (1963), are specialized
studies on aspects of Skepticism in relation to modern philosophy. ARNE NAESS, Scepticism (1968), is a most interesting attempt to clarify
Skepticism in relation to contemporary thought and to defend it as a viable
outlook today. BENSON MATES, Skeptical
Essays (1981), discusses epistemological problems and free will.
Ancient sources and fragments are
presented in R.K. SPRAGUE, The Older
Sophists, a Complete Translation (1972), and in K. FREEMAN, Ancilla to the Pre-Socratic Philosophers (1948), to be used together
with Freeman's The Pre-Socratic
Philosophers, 2nd ed. (1949). The original Greek texts are in H. DIELS and
W. KRANZ (eds.), Die Fragmente der
Vorsokratiker, 6th ed., vol. 2 (1952); and are edited with an Italian
translation and commentary in M. UNTERSTEINER, Sofisti, 4 vol. (1949-62). (General
discussions): T. GOMPERZ, Greek
Thinkers, Eng. trans. by L. MAGNUS, vol. 1, bk. 3, ch. 5-7 (1901); M.
UNTERSTEINER, The Sophists, Eng.
trans. by K. FREEMAN (1954); W.K.C. GUTHRIE, A History of Greek Philosophy, vol. 3, The Fifth-Century Enlightenment (1969). G.B. KERFERD, The
Sophistic Movement (1981), is a study of the intellectual contributions made
by the movement.
The Second Sophistic period is treated
in G.W. BOWERSOCK, Greek Sophists in the
Roman Empire (1969).
HANS VON ARNIM, Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta, 4 vol. (1905-24), is the standard text
collection. The following works of classic Stoic authors and substantive issues
in Stoicism in antiquity are most conveniently available in the "Loeb
Classical Library": MARCUS AURELIUS, Meditations;
EPICTETUS, Discourses; CICERO, De
fato, De finibus, De natura deorum, and Academica;
DIOGENES LAERTIUS, Lives of Eminent
Philosophers, vol. 2, book 7; SENECA, Epistulae
Morales and Moral Essays; SEXTUS
EMPIRICUS, Outlines of Pyrrhonism and Against
the Dogmatists, 4 vol.; GEORGE MURRAY, The
Stoic Philosophy (1915), the classical statement of the grandeur of the
Stoic philosophy; MAX POHLENZ, Die Stoa, 2
vol. (1948-49); and PAUL BARTH, Die Stoa (1903),
are representative of scholarly studies of Stoic philosophy; JOHNNY CHRISTENSEN,
An Essay on the Unity of Stoic Philosophy (1962),
is a recent and comprehensive essay; LUDWIG EDELSTEIN, The Meaning of Stoicism (1966); and JOSIAH B. GOULD, The
Philosophy of Chrysippus (1970), are among the best of recent studies of
Greco-Roman Stocism; EDUARD ZELLER, Die
Philosophie der Griechen in ihrer geschichtlichen Entwicklung, 5 vol.
(1856-68; in part translated as Stoics,
Epicureans, and Skeptics, rev. ed., 1962); EDWYN R. BEVAN, Stoics
and Sceptics (1913, reprinted 1959); and ROBERT D. HICKS, Stoic and Epicurean (1910, reprinted 1962), are illustrations of
Stoic philosophy in the Hellenistic period. See also JASON L. SAUNDERS, Greek
and Roman Philosophy After Aristotle (1966); and HARRY A. WOLFSON, Philo:
Foundations of Religious Philosophy in Judaism, Christianity and Islam, 2
vol. (1962). EDWARD V. ARNOLD, Roman
Stoicism (1911, reprinted 1958); and FREDERICK W. BUSSELL, Marcus
Aurelius and the Later Stoics (1910), are excellent statements of Stoicism
in the later Roman period. PIERRE DE LABRIOLLE, Histoire de la littérature latine chrétienne (1920;
Eng. trans., History and Literature of Christianity from Tertullian to Boethius, 1924), an
excellent presentation of the influence of Stoic views in late antiquity and the
patristic period; ETIENNE GILSON, History
of Christian Philosophy in the Middle Ages (1955); HARRY A. WOLFSON, The
Philosophy of the Church Fathers, 3rd ed. rev. (1970); MAURICE DE WULF, Histoire
de la philosophie médiéval, 2 vol. (1925; Eng. trans., History of Mediaeval Philosophy, 2 vol., 1926); and ISAAC HUSIK, A
History of Medieval Jewish Philosophy (1940), are careful introductions to
Stoic influences in patristic and medieval times; JASON L. SAUNDERS, Justus
Lipsius: The Philosophy of Renaissance Stoicism (1955); HAROLD HOFFDING, A
History of Modern Philosophy, 2 vol. (1950); and FREDERICK C. COPLESTON, A
History of Philosophy, rev. ed., vol. 3-6 (1962), trace the Stoic influence
from its revival in the Renaissance into modern philosophy. JOHN M. RIST (ed.), The
Stoics (1978), is an excellent collection of essays covering logic,
cosmology, ethics, psychology, and aesthetics.
Stoic logic and physics are treated in
BENSON MATES, Stoic Logic (1953);
SAMUEL SAMBURSKY, The Physical World of
the Greeks, 2nd ed. (1960; orig. pub. in Hebrew) and Physics of the Stoics (1959).
G.J. WARNOCK, English Philosophy Since 1900 (1958), is a very readable account
covering much of the history. J.O. URMSON, Philosophical
Analysis (1956), is especially good on logical atomism and its demise.
BERTRAND RUSSELL, The Problems of
Philosophy (1959), is a nontechnical account of his views just prior to the
period of logical atomism. A collection of Russell's papers, Logic
and Knowledge, ed. by R.C. MARSH (1956), contains his "Lectures on
Logical Atomism," together with more technical papers. G.E. MOORE, Some
Main Problems of Philosophy (1953), gives a good introduction to his methods
and philosophical concerns. Two key papers by Moore are "A Defence of
Common Sense," in Contemporary
British Philosophy, Second Series (1925), and "Proof of an External
World," in Proceedings of the British
Academy, 25:273-300 (1939). Among anthologies are those of A.J. AYER (ed.), Logical
Positivism (1959), which also includes papers critical of the movement and
has an excellent bibliography; BERNARD WILLIAMS and ALAN MONTEFIORE (eds.), British Analytical Philosophy (1966); RICHARD RORTY (ed.), The
Linguistic Turn (1967); J.A. FODOR and J.J. KATZ (eds.), The
Structure of Language (1964); and LEONARD LINSKY (ed.), Semantics and the Philosophy of Language (1952). The 1961
translation of WITTGENSTEIN'S Tractatus
Logico-Philosophicus by D.F. PEARS and B.F. MCGUINESS is superior to the
original English version. Wittgenstein's Philosophical
Investigations (1953) is the best known and historically the most
influential of the posthumously published works from his later period. A.J.
AYER, Language, Truth and Logic, 2nd
ed. (1946), remains the best introduction to Logical Positivism. GILBERT RYLE, The
Concept of Mind (1949), is the most famous example of what has been called
"ordinary language" philosophy. J.L. AUSTIN, How
To Do Things with Words (1962), contains the most discussed features of his
views. W.V.O. QUINE, From a Logical Point
of View (1953), is a collection of fairly nontechnical essays that provide
good examples of the continuing influence of formal logic.
Classic texts include JOHN LOCKE, An
Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 2 vol. (1690); DAVID HUME, A
Treatise of Human Nature, book 1, pt. 1 (1739); IMMANUEL KANT, Kritik der reinen Vernunft (1781; Eng. trans., Critique of Pure Reason, 1929); JOHN STUART MILL, A
System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, books 1 and 2 (1843).
W.H. WALSH, Reason and Experience (1947); and H.H. PRICE, Thinking and Experience, 2nd ed. (1969), are good general surveys.
For a comprehensive selection of standard works from Locke to J.S. Mill, see
A.J. AYER and R. WINCH (eds.), The British
Empirical Philosophers (1952). Modern works in the Empiricist tradition
include BERTRAND RUSSELL, Human Knowledge (1948);
W.T. STACE, Theory of Knowledge and
Existence (1932); RUDOLF CARNAP, Der logische Aufbau der Welt (1928; Eng. trans., The
Logical Structure of the World, 1967); and A.J. AYER, Language,
Truth and Logic, 2nd ed. (1946), a short exposition of the extreme
Empiricist position. HAROLD MORICK (ed.), Challenges
to Empiricism (1980), is a collection of essays.
Fundamental texts include SOREN
KIERKEGAARD, Philosophiske smuler (1844;
Philosophical Fragments, 1936);
Afsluttende uvidenskabelig efterskrift til de philosophiske smuler (1846; Concluding
Unscientific Postscript, 1941). FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE, Also sprach Zarathustra (1883-84; Thus Spoke Zarathustra, trans. by W. KAUFMANN in The
Portable Nietzsche, 1954); Zur
Genealogie der Moral (1877; Toward a
Genealogy of Morals, trans. by W. KAUFMANN in Basic
Writings of Nietzsche, 1966). KARL JASPERS, Psychologie
der Weltanschauungen (1919), the first work of contemporary Existentialism,
announcing all of the fundamental theses; Philosophie,
3 vol. (1932; Philosophy, 3 vol.,
1969-71); Vernunft und Existenz (1935;
Eng. trans., Reason and Existenz, 1955).
MARTIN HEIDEGGER, Sein und Zeit (1927;
10th ed., 1963; Being and Time, 1962);
Was ist Metaphysik? (1929; "What
Is Metaphysics?" trans. by R.F.C. HULL and A. CRICK in Existence
and Being, 1949); Einführung in
die Metaphysik (1953; An Introduction
to Metaphysics, 1959). GABRIEL MARCEL, Être
et Avoir (1935; Being and Having, 1949);
Le Mystère de l'être, 2
vol. (1950; The Mystery of Being, 1950-51);
The Philosophy of Existence, (1949).
NICOLA ABBAGNANO, La struttura
dell'esistenza (1939); N. LANGIULLI (ed. and trans.), Critical Existentialism (1969). JEAN-PAUL SARTRE, L'Être
et le néant (1943; Being and
Nothingness, 1956); L'Existentialisme
est un humanisme (1946; Existentialism
and Humanism, 1948). MAURICE MERLEAU-PONTY, La
Structure du comportement (1942; The
Structure of Behavior, 1963); Phénoménologie
de la perception (1945; The
Phenomenology of Perception, 1962).
Important surveys and analyses include
MARJORIE GRENE, Dreadful Freedom (1948);
HELMUT KUHN, Encounter with Nothingness:
An Essay on Existentialism (1951); MAURICE NATANSON, A Critique of Jean-Paul Sartre's Ontology (1951); JAMES COLLINS, The
Existentialists: A Critical Study (1952); WILLIAM BARRETT, What
Is Existentialism? (1964); ADOLPH LICHTIGFELD, Jaspers'
Metaphysics (1954); MARJORIE GRENE, Martin
Heidegger (1957); MARY WARNOCK, Existentialism
(1970); and ROBERT D. CUMMING, Starting
The two best books on Idealism in
English are A.C. EWING, Idealism: A
Critical Survey (1933); and R.F.A. HOERNLE, Idealism
as a Philosophy (1927). A.C. EWING (ed.), The Idealist Tradition from Berkeley to Blanshard (1957), is a
useful volume containing selections from the texts of the major Idealists and
selected criticisms of Idealism. Other important collections are C. BARRETT
(ed.), Contemporary Idealism in America (1932);
J.H. MUIRHEAD (ed.), Contemporary British
Philosophy: Personal Statements, First-Second Series, 2 vol. each (1924);
and G.P. ADAMS and W.P. MONTAGUE (eds.), Contemporary
American Philosophy, 2 vol. (1930). Works on the history and theory of the
subject include: B. BLANSHARD, Reason and
Analysis (1962), a careful critical examination of schools of philosophy
opposed to Idealism; G.W. CUNNINGHAM, The
Idealistic Argument in Recent British and American Philosophy (1933), a
thorough and dependable treatise; S.N. DASGUPTA, Indian Idealism (1933); NICOLAI HARTMANN, Die Philosophie des Deutsches Idealismus, vol. 1, Fichte,
Schelling, und die Romantik (1923), vol. 2, Hegel
(1929), 2nd ed. (1 vol., 1960); A.J.M. MILNE, The
Social Philosophy of English Idealism (1962); J.H. MUIRHEAD, The Platonic Tradition in Anglo-Saxon Philosophy: Studies in the History
of Idealism in England and America (1931); P.T. RAJU, Idealistic
Thought of India (1953); L.S. ROUNER (ed.), Philosophy,
Religion, and the Coming World Civilization: Essays in Honor of William Ernest
Hocking (1966); and A. STERN, Philosophy
of History and the Problem of Values (1962), a good secondary source.
On the classical systems of Indian
philosophy, see S. RADHAKRISHNAN, Indian
Philosophy, 2 vol. (1923-27), an authoritative exposition; S.N. DASGUPTA, A
History of Indian Philosophy, 5 vol. (1922-55), an erudite examination of
the Sanskrit and Pali texts; Indian
Idealism (1933); SRI AUROBINDO, The
Life Divine (1949), a reinterpretation of the heritage; and SWAMI
VIVEKANANDA, The Yogas and Other Works (1953), a collection with biography. In Pragmatism
(1907) and in The Varieties of
Religious Experience (1902), WILLIAM JAMES quoted Vivekananda at length as a
typical representative of spiritual monism. In the Sacred
Books of the East, 50 vol., ed. by F. MAX MULLER (1879-1910), see especially
vol. 1 and 15, The Upanishads and vol.
8, The Bhagavadgîtâ. In
the Harvard Oriental Series, 47 vol.,
ed. by CHARLES ROCKWELL LANMAN (1890-1968), see especially vol. 3, Buddhism
in Translations, and vol. 17, The
Yoga-System of Patañjali.
Writings of Idealists are listed in
their biographies. P.A. SCHILPP, editor of "The Library of Living
Philosophers Series," has issued four important volumes on Idealists: The
Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, 2nd ed. (1951); The
Philosophy of Ernst Cassirer (1949); The
Philosophy of Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
(1962); and The Philosophy of Martin
Buber (1967); and a volume on Brand Blanshard is in preparation. Other works
on Idealists include: J.H. COTTON, Royce
on the Human Self (1954), one of the best books on Royce; D.S. ROBINSON, Royce
and Hocking: American Idealists (1968); and GABRIEL MARCEL, La
Métaphysique de Royce (1945; Eng. trans., 1956), which shows the
relation of Marcel to Royce and Hocking. H.T. KIM, "Nishida and
Royce," Philosophy East and West, 1:18-29
(1952), and "The Logic of the Illogical: Zen and Hegel," ibid.,
5:19-29 (1955), are informative accounts of Nishida's contributions to
Idealism. The following volumes of the Revue
Internationale de Philosophie contain valuable bibliographies: Henri
Bergson, vol. 3 (1948); Léon
Brunschvicg, vol. 5 (1951); Hegel, vol.
6 (1952); George Berkeley, vol. 7
(1953); Benedetto Croce, vol. 7
(1953); Kant, vol. 8 (1954); Whitehead,
vol. 15 (1961); Leibniz, vol. 20
(1966); and Josiah Royce, vol. 21
(1967). GODFREY VESEY (ed.), Idealism Past
and Present (1982), includes historical essays on idealistic thought of the
past 2,500 years.
For the period up to about 100 years
ago, see F.A. LANGE, Geschichte des
Materialismus und Kritik seiner Bedeutung in der Gegenwart, 2 vol. (1902;
Eng. trans., History of Materialism and Criticism of Its Present Importance, 3rd
ed., 3 vol. (1925). For more recent times, see JOHN PASSMORE, A
Hundred Years of Philosophy, 2nd ed. (1966). There are excellent articles by
KEITH CAMPBELL and H.B. ACTON on "Materialism" and "Dialectical
Materialism" in the Encyclopedia of
Philosophy, vol. 5, pp. 179-188 and vol. 2, pp. 389-397 (1967), which also
contains excellent articles on nearly all of the noncontemporary philosophers
here mentioned. Examples of work by most of the contemporary writers are given
in JOHN O'CONNOR (ed.), Modern
Materialism: Readings on Mind-Body Identity (1969); and C.V. BORST (ed.), The
Mind-Brain Identity Theory (1970). See also HERBERT FEIGL, The
"Mental" and the "Physical": The Essay and a Postscript (1967);
J.J.C. SMART, Philosophy and Scientific
Realism (1963); D.M. ARMSTRONG, A
Materialist Theory of the Mind (1968); and WILFRID SELLARS, Science,
Perception and Reality (1963), especially ch. 1. A rather difficult book
defending Materialism from the difficulties about intentionality is D.C.
DENNETT, Content and Consciousness (1969).
For two very different styles of antimaterialist argument, see J.R. LUCAS, The
Freedom of the Will (1970); and NORMAN MALCOLM, Problems
of Mind (1971). Another interesting critique of Materialism is in JOHN
BELOFF, The Existence of Mind (1962).
A mainly mechanistic philosophy of biology is presented by the German biologist
B. RENSCH in Biophilosophie auf
erkenntnistheoretischer Grundlage (Panpsychistischer Identismus) (1968; Eng.
trans., Biophilosophy, 1971), though
Rensch's philosophy is also panpsychist.
Some classic Materialist works are:
LUCRETIUS, On the Nature of the Universe, trans.
by R.E. LATHAM (1951); THOMAS HOBBES, Body, Mind and Citizen: Selections, ed. by R.S. PETERS (1962); RENE
DESCARTES, Philosophical Writings, trans.
and ed. by ELIZABETH ANSCOMBE and P.T. GEACH (1954); and A. VARTANIAN, La
Mettrie's "L'Homme Machine": A
Study in the Origins of an Idea (1960), which is a critical edition with
introductory monograph and notes.
For epistemic Materialism, see RUDOLF
CARNAP, "Psychology in Physical Language," in A.J. AYER (ed.), Logical
Positivism (1959); Carnap's replies to Herbert Feigl and A.J. Ayer in P.A.
SCHILPP (ed.), The Philosophy of Rudolf
Carnap (1964); and H. REICHENBACH, Experience
and Prediction (1938).
The most relevant and important works by
Ryle and Wittgenstein are: GILBERT RYLE, The
Concept of Mind (1949); and LUDWIG WITTGENSTEIN, Philosophical Investigations (1953). For a Materialist critique of
Ryle, see BRIAN MEDLIN, "Ryle and the Mechanical Hypothesis," in C.F.
PRESLEY (ed.), The Identity Theory of
Mind, 2nd ed. (1971).
Most of the classical works on
Phenomenology were written by Husserl himself (see the bibliography of the
HUSSERL article). In EDMUND HUSSERL, Logische
Untersuchungen, 2nd ed., 2 vol. (1913-21; Eng. trans., Logical Investigations, 2 vol., 1970), one of the fundamental texts
on Phenomenology, the phenomenological method is applied in the area of logic.
The following works appeared in the journal Jahrbuch
für Philosophie und phänomenologische Forschung (1913-30);
Husserl's Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie
und phänomenologischen Philosophie (1913; Eng. trans., Ideas: General Introduction to Pure Phenomenology, 1931, reprinted
1969), through which Phenomenology established itself as transcendental
philosophy and received worldwide reaction; Vorlesungen
zur Phänomenologie des inneren Zeitbewusstseins (1928; Eng. trans., The
Phenomenology of Internal Time-Consciousness, 1964); and Formale
und transzendentale Logik (1929; Eng. trans., Formal and Transcendental Logic, 1969); MAX SCHELER, Der
Formalismus in der Ethik (1916); and MARTIN HEIDEGGER, Sein
und Zeit (1927; Eng. trans., Being and
Time, 1962). The following works appeared in the series Husserliana
(Husserl's collected works): Cartesianische
Meditationen und Pariser Vorträge (1950; Eng. trans., The Paris Lectures, 1964), which contains the text of the Paris
lectures of 1929 and the subsequent elaboration; Die Idee der Phänomenologie (1950: Eng. trans., The
Idea of Phenomenology, 1964), an introduction to Phenomenology in five
lectures from 1907; Ideen, 3 vol. (1950-52); Die
Krisis der europäischen Wissenschaften und die transzendentale Phänomenologie
(1954; Eng. trans., The Crisis of European
Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology, 1970), Husserl's later work
(1934-37), significant for the problems regarding the life-world; Erste
Philosophie, 2 vol. (1956-59), a critical history of ideas and a theory of
reduction presented in a series of lectures, 1923-24; Phänomenologische
Psychologie (1962), lectures from 1925, a different wording of the Encyclopædia
Britannica article of 1927, with remarks by Heidegger and the Amsterdam
addresses of 1925; Zur Phänomenologie
des inneren Zeitbewusstseins (1966), text on the problem of time from
1893-1917 with lectures (in the middle) from 1905 on the inner
time-consciousness (first edited by Heidegger); Analysen
zur passiven Synthesis (1966), a phenomenological analysis having sensation
as its subject matter; and Philosophie der
Arithmetik (1970), early manuscripts from 1890 to 1901. His The
Basic Problems of Phenomenology, trans. by ALBERT HOFSTADTER (1982;
originally published in German., 1975), reproduces a course of lectures given in
1927. See also JOSEPH J. KOCKELMANS, Edmund
Husserl's Phenomenological Psychology (1967); and RUDOLF BOEHM, Vom
Gesichtspunkt der Phänomenologie (1968).
In the series
"Phaenomenologica" works are published that are written from a
Phenomenological perspective, HERBERT SPIEGELBERG, The
Phenomenological Movement, 2nd ed., 2 vol. (1965), worthy of particular
mention, also appeared in this series. Since 1904 MARVIN FARBER has edited the
journal Philosophy and Phenomenological
Research (by no means, however, exclusively dedicated to Phenomenology). In
England The Journal of the British Society
for Phenomenology first appeared in 1970. In the United States the following
journals have appeared: Journal of
Phenomenological Psychology (semi-annual); Research in Phenomenology (1971); and Analecta Husserliana: The Yearbook of Phenomenological Research.
Literature on Classical Positivism
includes J. WATSON, Comte, Mill and
Spencer (1895); W.M. SIMON, European
Positivism in the Nineteenth Century (1963); JOHN STUART MILL, Auguste Comte and Positivism (1865); AUGUSTE COMTE, Cours
de philosophie positive, 6 vol. (1830-42; Eng. trans. and cond. by H.
MARTINEAU, The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte, 2 vol., 1853). For further
references to the ethical views of the classical Positivists, see the
bibliography of Utilitarianism in the Encyclopedia
Many of the original classics of Logical
Positivism and Logical Empiricism, both books and articles, are listed in the
ample bibliography of A.J. AYER (ed.), Logical
Positivism (1959), an anthology that contains, among other important essays,
RUDOLF CARNAP'S "Psychology in Physical Language." The early history
of Viennese Positivism is well told in VICTOR KRAFT, Der
Wiener Kreis: Der Ursprung des Neopositivismus (1950, 2nd ed. 1968; Eng.
trans., The Vienna Circle, 1953, reprinted 1969). Another important source
is J. JOERGENSEN, The Development of
Logical Empiricism, vol. 2, no. 9 of the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science (1951). For a brief
account of the European movement of Logical Positivism and its migration and
impact in the United States, see H. FEIGL, "The Wiener Kreis in
America," in D. FLEMING and B. BAYLIN (eds.), The Intellectual Migration: Europe and America 1930-1960 (1969).
Books, mainly in the foundations of the sciences, but also in philosophy of
language and epistemology, many by the leading Logical Empiricists, are listed
in the ample Bibliography and Index, in
HERBERT FEIGL and CHARLES MORRIS (eds.), International
Encyclopedia of Unified Science, vol. 2, no. 10 (1969). Of direct relevance
are the major works of R. Carnap, O. Neurath, M. Schlick, P. Frank, H.
Reichenbach, E. Nagel, C.G. Hempel, R. von Mises, and Charles Morris. For
criticisms, those of KARL R. POPPER may be used; and the intellectual
autobiography of Carnap, the 26 descriptive and critical essays, and his
replies, in P.A. SCHILPP (ed.), The
Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap (1963). For more recent evaluations and
reactions, see P. ACHINSTEIN and S.F. BARKER (eds.), The
Legacy of Logical Positivism: Studies in the Philosophy of Science (1969);
and Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of
Science, vol. 1-5 (1956-70).
Classic works include CHARLES SANDERS
PEIRCE, "The Fixation of Belief," "How to Make Our Ideas
Clear," and "What Pragmatism Is," in Collected Papers, vol. 5, ed. by C. HARTSHORNE and P. WEISS (1934);
WILLIAM JAMES, Principles of Psychology, 2
vol. (1890), The Will to Believe and Other
Essays in Popular Philosophy (1897), Pragmatism: A New Name for Some Old Ways of Thinking (1907), and The
Meaning of Truth (1909); JOHN DEWEY, How
We Think (1910), The Influence of
Darwin on Philosophy (1910), Democracy
and Education (1916), Essays in
Experimental Logic (1916), Reconstruction
in Philosophy (1920, 1948), Human
Nature and Conduct (1922), Logic: The Theory of Inquiry (1938), Theory of Valuation (1939), and Problems
of Men (1946). On F.C.S. Schiller see R. ABEL, The Pragmatic Humanism of F.C.S. Schiller (1955), with a
bibliography of Schiller's writings; on French and Italian pragmatists, H.S.
THAYER, Meaning and Action: A Critical
History of Pragmatism, part 3 (1968), with further bibliographical
For surveys of the movement, see H.S.
THAYER, Meaning and Action: A Critical
History of Pragmatism (1968), with bibliography; "Pragmatism," in
D.J. O'CONNOR (ed.), A Critical History of
Western Philosophy, pp. 437-462 (1964); and H.S. THAYER (ed.), Pragmatism:
The Classic Writings (1970), the basic writings in the Pragmatism of Peirce,
James, Dewey, Mead, and Lewis, and further bibliographical references; John
Dewey, "The Development of American Pragmatism," in Philosophy
and Civilization, pp. 13-35 (1931); and CHARLES W. MORRIS, The
Pragmatic Movement in American Philosophy (1970). JACQUES BARZUN, A
Stroll with William James (1983), is an excellent discussion of his ideas.
The classic Ancient Greek work is PLATO,
Meno; essential modern works are
DESCARTES, Meditationes de Prima
Philosophia . .
on First Philosophy): SPINOZA, Ethics; LEIBNIZ, Monadologie (Monadology
and Other Philosophical Writings); KANT,
Kritik der reinen Vernunft (Critique
of Pure Reason); 19th century.
Rationalism is epitomized in HEGEL, Phänomenologie
des Geistes (Phenomenology of Mind);
FRANCIS HERBERT BRADLEY, Appearance
For Rationalism in the theory of
knowledge, see BRAND BLANSHARD, Reason and
Analysis (1962); GEORGE BOAS, Rationalism
in Greek Philosophy (1961); ERNST CASSIRER, Die
Philosophie der Aufklärung (1932; Eng. trans., Philosophy of the Enlightenment, 1951); M.R. COHEN, Reason
and Nature: An Essay on the Meaning of Scientific Method, 2nd ed. (1953):
A.C. EWING, Idealism: A Critical Survey (1934); H.H. JOACHIM, The
Nature of Truth (1906); A.E. MURPHY, The
Uses of Reason (1943); H.J. PATON, In
Defence of Reason (1951); BERTRAND RUSSELL, Problems
of Philosophy (1912); W.H. WALSH, Reason
and Experience (1947).
For Rationalism in metaphysics, see the
classics listed above. For two outstanding examples from the present century,
see J.M.E. McTAGGART, The Nature of
Existence, 2 vol. (1921-27), together with the commentary of C.D. BROAD, Examination
of McTaggart's Philosophy, 2 vol. (1933-38); and ALFRED NORTH WHITEHEAD, Process
and Reality (1929). For Rationalism in ethics, see WILLIAM WOLLASTON, The
Religion of Nature Delineated (1722); and KANT, Die
Metaphysik der Sitten (1785; Eng. trans., The
Metaphysics of Morals, 1799). For early forms of the appeal to self-evident
rules, see RICHARD PRICE, A Review of the
Principal Questions in Morals (1758). For later types of Rationalism, see
G.E. MOORE, Principia Ethica (1903);
W.D. ROSS, The Right and the Good (1930),
and Foundations of Ethics (1939);
BRIAN ELLIS, Rational Belief System
For Rationalism in religion, excellent
standard works are: W.E.H. LECKY, History
of the Rise and Influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe, 2 vol.
(1865); A.D. WHITE, History of
the Warfare of Science with Theology in Christendom, 2 vol. (1910); J.M.
ROBERTSON, A Short History of Freethought, Ancient and Modern, 2nd ed., 2 vol.
(1906); A.W. BENN, History of English
Rationalism in the Nineteenth Century, 2 vol. (1906); J.B. BURY, A
History of Freedom of Thought (1913). SIGMUND FREUD, Die
Zukunft einer Illusion (1927; Eng. trans., The
Future of an Illusion, 1928), offers a psychoanalytic study of religious
The classical texts are JEREMY BENTHAM, An
Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789; 2nd ed.,
1823); JOHN STUART MILL, Utilitarianism (1861;
4th ed., 1871); HENRY SIDGWICK, The
Methods of Ethics (1874; 7th ed., 1907); G.E. MOORE, Principia
Ethica (1903) and Ethics (1912);
D.D. RAPHAEL (ed.), British Moralists:
1650-1800, 2 vol. (1969), containing selected readings.
Useful anthologies include MARY PETER
MACK (ed.), A Bentham Reader (1969);
J.B. SCHNEEWIND (ed.), Mill's Ethical
Writings (1965); SAMUEL GOROVITZ (ed.), Utilitarianism:
John Stuart Mill with Critical Essays (1971).
Secondary, historical, and contemporary
studies include DAVID LYONS, Jeremy
Bentham (1972) ERNEST ALBEE, A History
of English Utilitarianism (1902, reprinted 1957); LESLIE STEPHEN, The
English Utilitarians, 3 vol. (1900, reprinted 1968); ELIE HALEVY, La
Formation du radicalisme philosophique, 3 vol. (1901-04; Eng. trans., The
Growth of Philosophical Radicalism, 1928); J.P. PLAMENATZ, The
English Utilitarians (1949); J.B. SCHNEEWIND (ed.), Mill:
A Collection of Critical Essays (1968); STEPHEN TOULMIN, An Examination of the Place of Reason in Ethics (1950); P.H.
NOWELL-SMITH, Ethics, ch. 16 (1954);
RICHARD BRANDT, Ethical Theory, ch.
12-15 (1959); DAVID LYONS, Forms and
Limits of Utilitarianism (1965); JAN NARVESON, Morality and Utility (1967); MICHAEL D. BAYLES (ed.), Contemporary
Utilitarianism (1968); J.J.C. SMART, An
Outline of a System of Utilitarian Ethics (1961). DONALD REGAN, Utilitarianism and Cooperation (1980), a presentation of a new
utilitarian theory with a good survey of disputes among utilitarians.