PITMAN SHORTHAND / 피트만 속기

Pitman shorthand, system of rapid writing based on the sounds of words (i.e., the phonetic principle) rather than on conventional spellings. Invented by Sir Isaac Pitman, an English educator, the Pitman shorthand method was first published in 1837 as Stenographic Sound Hand. Pitman's system classifies the sounds of a language into basic groups and makes use of simple abbreviations for rapidity. Consonants are drawn from simple geometrical forms, straight lines, and shallow curves. As far as possible they are paired; thus, a light slanted line stands for p and a heavier slanted line for b, a light vertical line stands for t and a heavier one for d, and so on. Vowels are indicated by disjoined dots and dashes that are placed in specific positions relative to the consonants and the line of writing. The system makes use of circles, loops, and hooks for sounds frequently used in consonant combinations and syllables (e.g., for s, st, str, spr, and -ter, -der, -tion). Syllables are also added by halving or doubling the length of a consonant stroke.

Pitman shorthand was introduced into the United States in 1852; among the many languages to which it has been adapted are Hindi, Hebrew, Arabic, Persian, German, French, Spanish, and Dutch.

 

피트먼 속기(速記), Pitman shorthand. 종래의 방법인 철자 대신 낱말의 소리 (발음원칙)에 바탕을 둔 속기법.

영국의 교육자 아이작 피트먼이 발명한 피트먼 속기는 1837년에 〈소리에 따른 속기법 Stenographic Sound Hand〉이라는 책으로 처음 발표되었다. 이 속기법은 한 언어의 소리를 여러 개의 기본 집단으로 분류하고, 빠르게 쓰기 위해 간단한 생략형을 이용한다. 자음은 단순한 기하학적 형태와 직선 및 얕은 곡선으로 나타낸다. 그리고 가능한 한 비슷한 자음들을 짝짓는다. 따라서 가볍게 그은 빗금은 p를 나타내고 그보다 굵은 빗금은 b를 나타내며, 가법게 그은 수직선은 t를 나타내고 그보다 굵은 수직선은 d를 나타낸다. 모음은 분리된 점과 대시(dash) 기호로 표기하는데, 자음 및 행에 따라 특정한 위치에 놓인다. 이 속기법은 서로 이어진 자음과 음절에 흔히 쓰이는 소리들(예를 들면 s, st, str, spr, -ter, -der, -tion)을 표기하기 위해 동그라미와 고리 및 갈고리 모양의 기호를 이용한다. 자음을 나타내는 획의 길이를 반으로 줄이거나 2배로 늘리면 음절이 추가된다. 피트먼 속기는 1852년 미국에 도입되었다. 이 속기법을 채택한 언어는 많지만, 특히 중요한 것은 힌두어•히브리어•아랍어•페르시아어•독일어•프랑스어•스페인어•네덜란드어 등이다.

 

Pitman, Sir Isaac (b. Jan. 4, 1813, Trowbridge, Wiltshire, Eng.--d. Jan. 12, 1897, Somerset), English educator and inventor of the shorthand system named for him.

After clerking in a textile mill, Pitman entered a training college for teachers (1831) and taught in elementary schools for 11 years before opening his own private school in Bath. Earlier he had taken up Samuel Taylor's system of shorthand and become interested in developing shorthand based on sound. In 1837, at the suggestion of publisher Samuel Bagster, Pitman wrote Stenographic Sound Hand, which Bagster published at a low price for widest possible distribution. To encourage the adoption of his system, Pitman established a Phonetic Institute and a Phonetic Journal at Bath. He also printed standard works in shorthand, and his book Phonography (1840) went through many editions. He was an enthusiastic spelling reformer and adopted a phonetic system that he tried to bring into general use. In 1894 he was knighted.

 

피트먼 (Sir Isaac Pitman). 1813. 1. 4 잉글랜드 윌트셔 트로브리지~1897. 1. 12 서머싯. 영국의 교육자.

그의 이름을 딴 속기체제를 발명했다. 피트먼은 섬유공장의 사무원으로 일하다가 1831년 교육대학에 입학했다. 그뒤 배스에 자신의 사립학교를 설립할 때까지 11년 동안 국민학교에서 교사생활을 했다. 처음에 새뮤얼 테일러의 속기법에 심취했었지만, 소리에 기초한 새로운 속기법 개발에 힘을 쏟게 되었다. 1837년 발행인 S. 백스터의 제안에 의해 〈소리에 따른 속기법 Stenographic Sound Hand〉을 썼고, 백스터는 이 책을 널리 보급하기 위해 싼 가격으로 출판했다. 피트먼은 자신의 속기법 사용을 장려하기 위해 음성학연구소를 설립했고, 배스에서 〈음성학잡지 Phonetic Journal〉를 발간했다. 속기로 쓴 표준저서들도 출판했으며, 저서인 〈표음속기법 Phonography〉(1840)은 여러 판을 찍어냈다. 철자법 개정을 열렬히 주장했으며, 일반화시키려 했던 음성학 체제를 채택했다. 1894년에 기사작위를 받았다.

 

피트만 속기 예 및 트랜스크립션

3 ROYAL SOCIETY OF ARTS

In November, 1956, a new scheme10 to attract our savings was introduced by the Government in20 the form of Premium Savings Bonds. These bonds can be30 bought for /,'! each at any Post Office or40 through a bank. No interest is paid on the money,50 but when a bond has been held for three clear60 months it is included in a draw which takes place70 monthly. Each bond has a number, and the numbers of80 all eligible bonds are fed into an electronic device known90 as Ernie. The numbers are drawn at random and100 the holders of the bonds bearing the selected numbers receive prizes110 varying from ^,'5,000 to ^25. So120 long as the bond has not been cashed it takes130 part automatically in each draw until the death of the140 holder. The prize money comes from interest aarned by the150 Government from investment of the money spent on purchas­ing bonds.160 Many people have been attracted by this method of saving170 because they know that although their bonds may not win180 prizes the money invested in the bonds is safe and190 can be withdrawn at any time should it be needed.200

 

There has been some controversy about the introduction of bonds.210 There are, of course, people who say that by introduc­ing220 Premium Bonds the Government gave its blessing to a230 form of gambling. Others say that the Stock Exchange is another240 form of gambling, because large sums of money can sometimes260 be made through purchasing shares at a low price and260 selling them quickly at a higher price. It is true270 that people who deal in shares in this way take280 great risks with their money, but there are a number290 of people who invest their savings in industrial undertakings in300 return for a steady interest on their money. It is310 not wise, however, to invest money in shares in the320 hope of making a quick profit. You may find that330 the company into which you have put your money is340 not as successful as you hoped, and that instead of360 a steady income you have made a loss. You should360 not deal in shares unless you have first of all370 put some of your savings into the Post Office. If380 you do take risks with your money you must be390 able to lose it without causing hardship to your dependants.                                      (400)

 

4 ROYAL SOCIETY OF ARTS

Net savings through life assurance had risen during nineteen hundred10 and sixty by about sixteen per cent to four hundred20 and ninety million pounds, the Life Associations announced in April30 last year. This figure was arrived at by taking from40 premium and investment income of life assurance companies the payments50 made to the holders of their policies and the costs*" of running the business. It represented a net addition to70 the invested funds held by the ordinary and home service80 life offices to meet policy claims under millions of long-term90 contracts. At the same time it was announced that100 life assurance, as the largest single medium for personal savings110 in this country, now accounted for one pound in every120 three pounds saved by individuals.

From the point of view130 of security, life assurance offers a rare feature in that,140 unlike other forms of saving, one's nest-egg on premature150 death is not necessarily confined to what one has actually160 put aside plus the interest earned. With life assurance, an170 immediate estate is created by the payment of the first180 premium. Looked at as a method of saving—or investing190—life assurance offers a number of attractions.

In any consideration200 of the increasing demand for life assurance, account must be taken210 of the "mass market" largely composed of wage-earners. It220 is for this large proportion of the population that industrial230 (or Home Service) life assurance caters in a way adapted2'10 to its needs and customs.

In spite of increased prosperity250 the wage-earning family generally remains true to its normal260 method of managing its domestic finances; that is, from one270 pay packet to the next. In step with this, and280 offering support to the thrift habit, is the "insurance man's"290 regular weekly or monthly visit to collect premiums.

This personal300 service In the home also includes the payment of claims;310 and the holders of Home Service insurance policies received over320 one hundred and fourteen million pounds two years ago. It330 also includes advice on other insurance problems, and it is340 not surprising that industrial assurance continues to attract a very350 large public. Indeed, the average of sums assured in each360 of the estimated ten million households where this type of370 life assurance is held is close on four hundred pounds.380

To millions of families the "insurance man" is an institution,390 but, together with the people they service, institutions must keep400 pace with the times. The increasing number—now not far410 short of half—of new holders of policies having their420 premiums collected monthly rather than weekly, would seem to show430 that many wage-earners now enjoy larger incomes, though this440 does not mean that they wish to abandon the aid450 of savings self-discipline of premium collections. Even the now460 well-established public preference for endowment assurance is a sign470 of a changed attitude to the use of life assurance;480 and policies with an endowment element accounted for four-fifths490 of the premiums on newly taken out industrial assurances last600 year.

In a changing society there are many individuals whose510 grow­ing prosperity makes them aware of the need for fuller520 insurance;

and it is quite natural for many of these530 people, hitherto holders of industrial life assurance, to look for640 advice and service on these broader needs to the "insurance650 man" whom they and their families know and trust (559)

   



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